Recoverable Food Agricultural ByProducts for Nonfood Uses

As shown in Table 8.2, specialty chemicals such as tartrate can be produced from wine grape wastes; glue and gelatin can be extracted from

Table 8.3. Abundant volatile flavor compounds in commonly blanched vegetables.*

Broccoli

Brussels Sprouts

Cauliflower

Beans

5-(methylthio)

2-propenyl

Dimethyl sulfide

1-Octen-3-ol

pentanenitrile

isothiocyanate

4- (methylthio)butyl

Dimethyl sulfide

Dimethyl

(Z)-5-octen-2-one

isothiocyanate

disulfide

Dimethyl sulfide

Dimethyl

(S)-methylthio-

(Z)-3-hexenol

disulfide

butyrate

Dimethyl disulfide

(Z)-3-pentenol

Acetone

n-Hexanol

Nonanal

acetaldehyde

Acetaldehyde

Acetaldehyde

(E,E)-2,4-

Diethyl ketone

Allyl cyanide

Dimethyl disulfide

heptadienal

(Z)-3-hexenol

Acetone

Trans-but-2-

Ethyl alcohol

een-1-ol

Allyl cyanide

Allyl cyanide

Allyl isothio-

Diethyl ketone

cyanate

*Data from MacLeod and MacLeod (1970), Maruyama (1970), Buttery et al. (1976), and Whitfield and Last (1991).

*Data from MacLeod and MacLeod (1970), Maruyama (1970), Buttery et al. (1976), and Whitfield and Last (1991).

wastes from meat and poultry processing operations. Hormones and vitamins may also be produced from meat, poultry, and fishery processing. Using wastewaters from food processing as substrates for various bioproductions of potential economic interest has been reported (Murado et al., 1993; Roukas, 1999; Guerra and Pastrana, 2003). For example, wastes from mussel processing have been used to produce single-cell protein and a highly stable amylolytic preparation from different Aspergillus strains (Murado et al., 1993). Recently, Hernández et al. (2006) have produced amylase and protease by Aspergillus niger strain UO-1 using the wastewaters from brewery and meat processing. Amylase is widely used in the food industry, fermentation in general, and in the textile and paper industries; protease can be used in cheese production, meat tenderizer, baking, textiles, and leather tanning, as well as an additive to detergents.

In addition to ethanol or methane, which can be used either as fuel or chemical, there are many examples of specialty chemical products that result from fermentation of carbohydrates by different species of microorganisms (Leeper et al., 1991). Lactic acid, succinic acid, apliphatic acids, sor-

bitol, stearic acid, and linoleic acid are just a few of many possible chemical products from fermentation of sugars (glucose and sucrose), and lactose.

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