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Repeated measured temperature logs (together with the reduced temperatures) performed in the Hearst hole, NE Ontario, Canada (personal communication by W.D. Gosnold and A.M. Jessop, see text). diagrams below present the temperature log not only on the measured, but also on a reduced scale obtained by subtracting from the measured temperatures, a temperature value gradient X depth (see also Eq. (2.5), Section 2.2). This representation enhances the nonlinearities. The shape of the...

Year

Mean annual SAT recorded at meteorological station Fichtelberg (Germany) during 1891-2004 and its 10-year running average. Solid lines represent the mean warming rates for the whole observation period and for years 1980-2004. increased by approximately 1.2-2K above the average level for 1950-1985 (Borchert, 2005). This temperature course is quantitatively similar to the global temperature change. However, while the twentieth century global warming rate coincides well with the one...

Climate Change and Subsurface Temperature

While the majority of climatologists are looking up to the sky or plunge themselves in the oceans to understand why and how the climate has changed, an adroit borehole cli-matologist is looking inside deep holes drilled in the ground. The most important research implement of the Borehole Climatology is a borehole. Typical borehole site looks like as it is shown in Figure 18. A borehole, usually a small-diameter hole drilled from the land surface to the depth of several tens or hundreds meters,...

Background and History of the Problem

Weather substantially influences our day-by-day life. The most simple explanation of weather It is all that happens outside. Weather includes the changes of hot and cold or wet and dry. It may be calm or stormy, and clear or cloudy. Weather is a variety of events that occur in the atmosphere all over the world. Broadly speaking, weather is the place-by-place and the day-by-day and or season-by-season feeling of the state of the atmosphere, when the events take place on relatively small scales...

Ground Temperature Histories Evidence of Changing Climate

Over the 100-200 years' long instrumental period, climate reconstruction leans against the amount and quality of proxy records and the skill of different techniques to infer climatic information from indirect measurements. Temperature-depth profiles measured in boreholes represent valuable source for paleoclimatic reconstruction that during the last two or three decades significantly contributed to the knowledge of the temperature variations from centennial to millennial timescales. Since...

Aix

Where (a*) denotes the best linear predictor of xt given its past history analogously (a,P) denote the best linear predictors of xt given its past and the past of yt_v and e utrepresent the error terms. Obviously, the restricted equation does not use information of the dataset Y, while unrestricted equation includes information of both datasets X and Y. (2) Granger causality tests a full model against a null model with no possible causality, where the parameters of interest are set to zero....

Day Of The Year 2000

Time series of daily averages of air temperature (5 cm height) and soil temperatures at the surface and at 5, 100, 200, and 500cm depth measured at station Prague-Sporilov during year 2000. The histogram below shows precipitation amount. temperature record at 5 cm height and the GST records at the air-soil interface practically repeat each other. Correlation of both temperatures amounts to 0.96. The ground temperature at 20 cm depth slightly fluctuates around air temperature. Depending...