Phaseolin a Major Evolutionary Marker

Phaseolin is the major seed storage protein of common bean and it can be used to trace the evolutionary origin of common bean genotypes. The electrophoretic variability of phaseolin of wild-growing common beans from Mesoamerica and the Andes was compared with landraces of the same region. The wild common bean accessions of different geographic origin could be distinguished by their phaseolin type (Fig. 7.3). In Mesoamerica, the wild forms showed both the S type as well as M types. The Colombian...

Pesticides

Mainly comprised of plant protection products and biocidal products, pesticides are designed to influence fundamental processes in living organisms. They may have the potential to kill or control harmful organisms such as pests, but can also cause unwanted adverse effects on non-target organisms, human health and the environment (EC 2007). Both the hazards and benefits of pesticides are well documented in published literature and have been reviewed most recently by Cooper and Dobson (2007)....

Thesis On Soil Solarization With The References 2016

Aalders AJG, Pieters R (1987) Resistance in Vicia faba to Orobanche crenata True resistance versus hidden susceptibility. Euphytica 36 227-236 Abebe G, Sahile G, Al-Tawaha ARM (2005) Evaluation of potential trap crops on Orobanche soil seed bank and tomato yield in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia. World J Agric Sci 1 148-151 Alford ER, Perry LG, Qin B, Vivanco JM, Paschke MW (2007) A putative allelopathic agent of Russian knapweed occurs in invaded soils. Soil Biol Biochem 39 1812-1815...

Conclusion Of Soil Of Bangladesh

The review and discussion cited in this paper on different aspects of homestead agroforestry production system revealed that it appeared a potential area for improving production and income of the rural households of Bangladesh. The paper clearly stated how homestead agroforestry production system meets the diversified needs of the rural households through production of a wide variety of agricultural (food crops, vegetables, spices, fodder, etc.) and forest tree products (fruits, timber,...

Measurement of Microbial Diversity

Any comparison of the impacts of organic and conventional farming systems on biodiversity is likely to be problematic, largely as a result of the complexity of, and interactions between, the range of farming practices that comprise the two systems. The majority of studies seek to minimize apparently extraneous variation, unrelated to farming system with varying degrees of rigor and success. Some studies then go further, attempting to control for variation in crop-type, non-crop habitat or...

Financial Crisis Climate Change and the Painkiller Solution

Society is actually experiencing an unexpected financial crisis that will undoubtedly impact all nations (Beyond Growth 2008). It will affect in particular the poorest countries that are already suffering from hunger and diseases. Governments are attempting to heal this issue by injecting large amounts of money in banking systems and major companies. At the same time, effects of climate change are accelerating and deeply altering ecosystems (IPCC 2007). Recent alarming reports even warn that it...

Global Warming and Climate Changes

Climate models predict that a doubling of current atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels will cause a global increase of 1.4-5.9 C in mean surface air temperature by 2080 (Houghton et al. 2001). This increase in temperature is also likely to be accompanied by an increase in temperature variance. Moreover, extreme weather events that were previously rare for example, heavy precipitation or long droughts may become more frequent (Hulme and Jenkins 1998 Houghton et al. 2001). However, changes in...

Tracer Experimental Approaches

Three general isotopic approaches, pulse labeling, continuous labeling, and the 13C natural abundance have been used to assess carbon budgets and below-ground biomass. Techniques using 14C and pulse and continuous labeling techniques are beyond the scope of this chapter and can be found in Goh and Molloy (1979), Goy (1991), Paul et al. (1997), and Kuzyakov and Domanski (2000). The major advantage of isotopic approaches over non-isotopic approaches is that source tracking of individual pools can...

Striving for a Sustainable Agriculture

The discussion above leads to the following considerations (1) today's agriculture has achieved the scientific and technical ability to provide food for a steadily increasing world population, but the price paid to achieve this success, in terms of environmental decay and quality of life, cannot be accepted and there is ample reason to fear an irreversible decay of agro-ecosystems in the future (2) strategies for a sustainable agriculture are urgently needed and an arsenal of sometimes...

Nematode Bacteria Symbiosis

The symbiotic association between entomopathogenic nematode and its bacteria have been reported by several workers (Kaya 1990 Kaya and Gaugler 1993 Tanada and Kaya 1993 Sicard et al. 2005 Somavanshi et al. 2006 Wang et al. 2007a). Infective juveniles of entomopathogenic nematode carry the bacteria Xenorhabdus (in case of steinernematids) or Photorhabdus (in case of heterorhabditids) belonging to Enterobacteriaceae (Forst et al. 1997 Nagesh et al. 2002). These bacteria are Gram-negative,...

Phasmarhabditis Hermaphrodita

Among the several slug-parasitic nematode species, Pp. hermaphrodita is considered to be the most successful capable of killing several slug species, the widespread pest of many agricultural and horticultural crops. In the recent years Pp. hermaph-rodita has also been exploited as biocontrol agent. Schneider (1859) was the first to describe this nematode associated with the slug A. ater. Maupas (1900) established culture of Pp. hermaphrodita and maintained it on rotting flesh. Wilson et al....

Varieties with Strong Allelopathic Potential

During cultivation, weed and pest resistance characteristics were ignored, and therefore the selection of high-yielding varieties caused the loss of allelopathic traits (Singh et al. 2001). For example, one of the ancestors of wheat, Triticum speltoides, contained significantly higher quantities of the allelochemical 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1, 4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA) than Triticum aestivum (Niemeyer 1988). Another example is wild species Maximilian sunflower Helianthus maximiliani Schrad....

Indigenous Soil Knowledge for Sustainable Agriculture

Handayani and Priyono Prawito Abstract Indigenous soil knowledge, a foundation of traditional farming systems, plays an important role in developing agricultural and environmental sustainability, especially in developing countries where most farmers have limited access to soil analysis and extension services. Recently, indigenous soil knowledge has been recognized as a vital source for most scientists to be used to change and improve natural resource management without neglecting the...

Conclusion

Many definitions of sustainable agriculture are reported by literature, but all are related to the basic concept of a profitable crop production with no environmental pollution and depletion of farm and natural resources, including effects on soil, water, and biodiversity (Doran 2002 Francis et al. 2006). Soil solarization seems to fit the fundaments of sustainable agriculture as providing an effective and environmentally safe control of many soilborne pests and more competitive market...

Effect on Bacteria and Viruses

Survival of plant pathogenic bacteria in solarized soil was investigated in a limited number of studies. Agrobacterium species were found highly sensitive to solariza-tion, as bacterial population was reduced up to 72 in the studies of Stapleton and DeVay (1984), and decreased by 99 and 92 after solarization treatment in two italian nurseries (Raio et al. 1997). In this study, two strains of A. tumefaciens Smith and Townsend were eliminated within 4 weeks or markedly reduced after 2 months in...

Homestead in Bangladesh

The country consists of 68,000 villages and each village contains about 268 homesteads (BBS 2005). It is the center of socioeconomic activities and traditional cultural heritage of villages in Bangladesh. Homesteads are multipurpose entities with dwellings, vegetables, spices, fruits, and fuelwood timber species (Fig. 16.1). The homesteads the people live in are locally known as Bari, which occur in linear, cluster, or individual pattern (Hussain and Miah 2004). Homesteads are perhaps the most...

Effect on Plant Growth and Crop Yield

Favorable effects of soil solarizarion on plant growth and crop yield were largely documented in many studies (Stapleton and Devay 1984 Davis 1991 Gamiel and Katan 1991). Increased growth response following solarization extended also to nursery seedlings and deciduous tree crops (Stapleton and DeVay 1982 Salerno et al. 2000), and resulted particularly evident under greenhouse conditions, where crop yield and quality was found to last for more than two crop cycles (Candido et al. 2008) (Fig....

Organic Agriculture and Food Production Ecological Environmental Food Safety and Nutritional Quality Issues

Reza Ghorbani, Alireza Koocheki, Kirsten Brandt, Stephen Wilcockson, and Carlo Leifert Abstract Conventional agricultural systems should not only produce much greater amounts of food, feed, fibre and energy to meet the global needs, but also challenge problems to improve health and social well-being of man, reduce dependence on fossil fuels, adapt to climate change and extreme weather, reduce environmental degradation and decline in the quality of soil, water, air and land resources throughout...

Diversity of Rhizobia

Rhizobia is a gram-negative Proteobacteria with the capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen when it is associated with the legume's roots. It is possible that the microorganisms associated with the common bean plant for its SNF may exhibit a similar arrangement of genetic diversity in Mesoamerican and Andean gene pools. While common bean is highly promiscuous in its relationship with rhizobia, R. etli bv. phaseoli has been found as the predominant nodule occupants in both the Mesoamerican and...

Sustainable Agricultural Paradigms

There are many different schools of thought about how to interpret sustainability (Colby 1989). Sustainable development incorporates the idea of transformations of relationships among people and between people and nature. Batie, however, believes that considerable tension exists between those schools of sustainable development thought that draw their strength from the ecological science paradigm and those from an economic science paradigm (Batie 1991). In her view the assumptions of the two...

Attitudes Behaviors and Sustainable Agriculture

Attitudes are defined as a disposition to respond favorably or unfavorably to an object, person, institution, or event. An attitude is (a) directed toward an object, person, institution, or event (b) has evaluative, positive or negative, elements (c) is based on cognitive sustainable agricultural attitudes and behaviors beliefs toward the attitude object (i.e., the balancing between positive and negative attributes of an object leads to an attitude) and (d) has consequences for behavior when...

Chemical Structure of Zearalenone

Zearalenone, acid lactone, is a non-steroidal mycotoxin with oestrogenic properties. It was first isolated from extracts of fungus Gibberella zeae (Fusarium graminearum) by Stob et al. (1962). This component is believed to act as an endogenous regulator of the sexual stage of development of their producer fungi. In the organisms of warm-blooded animals, the lactones mimic endogenous 17 P-estradiol, i.e. they stimulate the growth of muscle tissue and affect the functions of the reproductive...

Host Range and Effects

Steinernema kraussei S. carpocapsae S. feltiae S. glaseri S. kushidai S. intermedium S. affine S. cubanum S. bicornutum S. longicaudatum S. rarum S. scapterisci S. serratum S. thermophilum Heterorhabditis bacteriophora subgroup Brecon H. megidis Nearctic group (Ohio, Wisconsin) Xenorhabdus bovienii X. nematophila X. bovienii X. poinarii X. japonica X. bovienii X. bovienii X. poinarii X. budapestensis X. beddingii X. szentirmaii X. innexi X. ehlersii X. indica Photorhabdus luminescens...

Introduction

Soil-applied pesticides have been successfully used to control soilborne diseases, weeds, and nematodes in most vegetable and fruit crops over the past decades. Toxicity of these materials to animals and humans and their environmental and economic costs (Pimentel et al. 1992 Ruzo 2006) raised serious environmental and human safety concerns, leading to the phase-out of the most effective and largely used chemical, the methyl bromide (Luken and Grof 2006), and the increasing restrictions on the...

Sociology of Sustainable Agriculture

Ezatollah Karami and Marzieh Keshavarz Abstract Sustainability is the core element of government policies, university research projects, and extension organizations worldwide. Yet, the results of several decades of attempt to achieve sustainable agriculture have not been satisfactory. Despite some improvement conventional agriculture is still the dominant paradigm. Pollution of water, soil, and air, degradation of environmental resources, and loss of biodiversity are still the by-product of...

Quality Control

A good image for compost can be built up with assured quality and a quality label. Germany, Denmark, the Netherland, and Belgium have developed a composting system which is very important for the quality assurance. Elements of the quality assurance system are quality assurance of European composting and digestion plants (in ECN 2008) Limits for harmful substances Quality criteria for the valuable constituents in the compost External control (product and or production) Quality label for the...

References

Al-Najar H, Schulz R, R mheld V (2005) Phytoremediation of thallium contaminated soils by brassicaceae. In Lichtfouse E, Schwarzbauer J, Robert D (eds) Environmental chemistry. Springer, pp 187-196 Anderson RL (2009a) Managing weeds with a dualistic approach of prevention and control. A review. In Lichtfouse E, Navarrete M, Debaeke P, Souchere V, Alberola C (eds) Sustainable agriculture. Springer, pp 391-398. DOI 10.1007 978-90-481-2666-8_25 Anderson RL (2009b) Rotation design a critical factor...

Composting Methods

The most important technical methods of composting are statistic piles, windrows, and reactor vessels (shown in Figs. 12.3 and 12.4). Composting ingredients are mixed and during the composting process aeration is indicated. Bertoldi and Civilini (2006) carried out a composting process in two separate reactors first, only in the thermophilic phase, with the purpose of pathogen destruction and decomposition by selected thermophilic microorganisms second, only in the mesophilic phase, to perform...

Definition and Global Situation of Organic Agriculture

Organic agriculture has a long history with guidelines developed in 1924 to formalize an alternative to conventional production systems (Hovi et al. 2003). This was associated with Rudolf Steiner and the development of biodynamic farming and agriculture, which has unique features in addition to those of organic farming in general, and a certification scheme established in 1928. This still operates today and is identified by the Demeter and Biodyn labels on foods (Lampkin 1999). Organic farming...

P and Phytodiversity

Highest plant diversity has often been found to be correlated with low P availability (Table 6.1). Different shapes of this relationship have been found, e.g., linear or hump-backed shapes. The form of these shapes seems to be independent of the overall amount of P in the soil. However, comparison between different studies is hindered by different methods of P extraction as well as different units. In the Table 6.1 Literature overview of the relation between species richness and P concentration...

Homestead Agroforestry An Excellent Source of Nutrition

Agroforestry Potential Homestead

Nutritional problem is the key issue along with food security in Bangladesh today. A small percentage of the people have access to nutritious food, whilst the majority is forced to survive on subsistence diets that are unbalanced and devoid of essential food ingredients (MoA-UNPD 2000). Generally, landless and marginal farmers are at Fig. 16.12 Fruit, sugarcane, vegetable, poultry, and livestock are in a homestead, which provide nutrition to the household Fig. 16.12 Fruit, sugarcane, vegetable,...

Anaerobic Digestion as an Alternative Way of Recycling Biowaste

Chynoweth and Isaacson (1987) describe the process of anaerobic digestion as follows The process begins with the separation of household waste into biodegradable and nonbiodegradable waste. The biodegradable material is shredded, slurried, and then screened and pasteurized to start the process of killing harmful pathogens. It is then pumped into the digester where bacteria break down the material and form biogas, leaving a digestate. The three main process stages in anaerobic digestion are...

Fertilization

Stinner and House (1989) suggested an inverse relationship between the levels of chemical input and the system sustainability, and their principle is widely, more or less implicitly, accepted Zandstra (1994, as reported by Hansen 1996), however, proposed a different scheme, with insufficient chemical inputs leading to exhaustion of natural resources and excessive inputs leading to accumulation and eventually to pollution. The two principles are not as opposed as it can appear at first sight and...

Steinernematids and Heterorhabditids 1331 Ecology and Distribution

After the baiting technique developed by Bedding and Akhurst (1975), random soil surveys were conducted globally in order to find entomopathogenic nematode in temperate, sub-tropical and tropical countries. These nematodes were common in both cultivated and uncultivated soils and their distribution was found to be worldwide (Hominick et al. 1996 Hominick 2002). Steinernematids were much more biologically diversified than Heterorhabditids. The most widely distributed species were S. carpocapsae,...

Definition of Agriculture

The first point to clarify is What is agriculture , of course, there is general agreement about the sorts of things, people, plants, and animals that can be called agricultural, but this is not good enough if we are seriously interested in topics such as the role of science in agriculture, the role and importance of agriculture in the world, and how agricultural efficiency can be improved (Speeding 1988). Not many attempts have been made to be more precise and it is quite difficult to arrive at...

Importance of Indigenous Soil Knowledge in Developing Sustainable Agriculture

The farming system is a foundation in agriculture. A sustainable farming system is recognized as a system that maintains the resource base upon which it depends, relies on minimum of synthetic inputs, manages pests and diseases through internal regulating processes, and can recover from the human disturbance caused by agricultural practices, i.e., cultivation and harvest (Edwards et al. 1990 Altieri 1995). Sustainable agriculture is farming systems that are maintaining their productivity and...

Allelopathy and Organic Farming

Abstract Allelopathy is a biological process including interactions between two plants through the production of chemical compounds (allelochemicals) that are released by leaching, volatilization, decomposition, or root exudation. Hence, allelopathy together with competition is a promising environment-friendly tool for weed management. However, detailed knowledge of this phenomenon is necessary for its successful application due to still limited available knowledge. Suitable use of allelopathic...

Occurrence and Physiology of Zearalenone as a New Plant Hormone

Jolanta Biesaga-Koscielniak and Maria Filek Abstract Zearalenone* is a non-steroidal mycotoxin with oestrogenic properties, which is produced mainly by fungi belonging to Fusarium acid lactone). The toxin-producing ability of Fusaria is greatly influenced by environmental factors. Therefore, it was expected that the different weather conditions occurring during the vegetation period would be associated with differences in the preharvest occurrence of Fusarium toxins. Sustainable food systems...

Isotopic Natural Abundance Techniques Plant Carbon in Soil

The 13C isotopic natural abundance C-budget approach can be used to determine the amount of NHC remaining in soil, SOC half-lives, and SOC turnover because relic SOC and new plant material additions have different isotopic values. When making these calculations, it is important to consider that above-ground and below-ground carbon inputs may have different isotopic signatures. For example, plant roots are often 13C-enriched compared to plant leaves (Badeck et al. 2005 Bowling et al. 2008)....

Use of Allelopathic Crops in Biological Control

Allelopathy includes not only plant-plant, plant-microorganism interactions but also plant-insect interaction (Durtn-Serantes et al. 2002). Plants are able to produce compounds that act as repellents for herbivorous pests and as attractants for antagonistic organisms, e.g., predators and parasitoids. However, some insects are able to detoxify the chemical and so they can feed on the plant (Capinera 2005). For example, secondary metabolites from barley such as gramine and hordenin help in...

Green Manure

Green manure is incorporation of fresh plant biomass into the soil to improve nutritional level concerning organic matter and nitrogen, to reduce soil erosion, and it may also serve as sources of allelochemicals for suppression of weed species. Although green manures usually favor beneficial microorganisms, there can be a short-term increase in plant pathogens such as Rhizoctonia solani K hn (Weinhold 1977). However some compounds as isothiocyanates can have inhibitive effects to soil-borne...

Mass Production

Entomopathogenic Nematodes

The two different techniques for mass production of entomopathogenic nematodes are (i) in vivo, and (ii) in vitro. Production of entomopathogenic nematodes depend upon the area to be applied as well as the type of nematode species used. If a small plot is to be applied as for research purpose, the in vivo production technique would be appropriate, otherwise for fields in vitro methods are used. White trap (White 1927) is one of the most common methods to produce entomo-pathogenic nematodes....

Effects on Soil Chemical and Physical Properties

Solar heating was normally reported to increase soil content of soluble nutrients, and particularly of dissolved organic matter, inorganic nitrogen forms, and available cations, either under field-scale or in growth chamber simulated solarization (Stapleton et al. 1985 Stevens et al. 1991a Grunzweig et al. 1999 Chen et al. 2000 Salerno et al. 2000 Ghini et al. 2003). Chen and Katan (1980) observed increased concentrations of dissolved organic matter in saturated extracts of solarized soils, and...

Homestead Agroforestry and Management A Key Employment Opportunity for the Women

Women, the vulnerable group of the society and half of the country's population, have a great opportunity for self-employment in the income-generation activities through the practice of vegetable and fruit production in the homestead. Homestead agrofor-estry activities are keeping busy the entire households particularly the women who have minimum opportunities to be involved with other than homestead activities and ensuring the economic security especially to the poorer. The possibility of...

Homestead Agroforestry A Pathway for Plant Biodiversity Conservation

Plant biodiversity is the plant genetic wealth of a country or an area. Bangladesh once was endowed with thousands of diverse species, but its rich biodiversity is on the verge of rapid decline, because the current rate of extinction of different species is many times faster than what it would have been through the natural process because of rapid depletion of natural forest coverage and mono-cropping with high yielding and hybrid varieties. Presently, loss of plant biodiversity has been...

Homestead Agroforestry A System for Multiple Products

Image Homestead Agroforestry

Historically, homestead agroforestry production system has been providing multiple products to the households and meeting their diversified need through the production of a wide variety of fruits, vegetables, spices, and different tree products (Miah et al. 2002). The prevailing climatic and edaphic conditions of Bangladesh are the key factors for providing such a unique opportunity of producing a wide range of products (Fig. 16.8). It has been reported that homestead production system...

Intercropping

Another cultural method suitable for weed control strategy is intercropping (growing two or more crops together). Intercropping of clovers and grasses is widely used in pastures or for fodder production, but intercropping (cereals, grain legumes, and oil seeds) for human consumption is not so common. For example, binary grass-alfalfa mixtures for hay production are common in most subhumid to semiarid areas (Berdahl et al. 2001). Italian ryegrass (L. multiflorum Lam.) or oat (Avena sativa L.)...

Modifying Plant Growth and Yield Using Zearalenone

Our studies show that zearalenone can be used to increase the yield of wheat (Biesaga-Koscielniak et al. 2006a, b). Plants that were sprayed with zearalenone during the heading stage increased their number of grains per ear and their weight per 1,000 grains. Watering and soaking wheat grains produced even better effects in comparison to spraying (Biesaga-Koscielniak et al. 2006a). Zearalenone-treated plants had a higher number and weight per ear and weight per 1,000 grains. The reproduction of...

Allelopathy in Parasite Weed Management

Allelopathy found hopeful utilization in plant protection against parasite weeds. The main world parasitic species are the witchweeds (Striga spp.), broomrapes (Orobanche spp.), and eventually dodder (Cuscuta spp.). Witchweeds and broom-rapes attack many economically important crops especially throughout the semiarid regions. Early detection of parasitic weed infestation and protection is difficult because of the growth habit of a root parasite and huge production of dust-like seeds viable up...

Soil Nutrient Balance

In conventional systems four frequently used elements, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and calcium are often applied as synthetic fertilizers in relatively heavy concentrations that frequently exceed crop requirements. This can cause soil imbalances in two ways (1) by increasing or decreasing availability of some elements essential for crop growth and also by changing soil pH, and (2) by increasing productivity over the short term but in decreasing productivity over the longer term due to...

Crop Rotation with Allelopathic Crops to Control Weeds

Crop rotation is a system where different plants are grown in a defined sequence. The well-designed crop rotation is the basis of the success in organic farming. Continuous monoculture is unacceptable due to the increased pressure of weeds and pathogens and difficulties with maintaining soil fertility. Diversity of crops in the rotation is the key to a successful crop rotation program that rotate early-seeded, late-seeded and fall-seeded crops grassy, broadleaf and legume crops highly...

Maturity of Composting Products

The Composting Council of Canada (http compost.org pdf sheet_4.PDF) defines the compost maturity as following (the guidelines for that are shown in Table 12.3) Compost maturity was chosen as one of the parameters for determining the grade of compost in Canada because it is so important to product performance. Immature compost may stunt, damage, or even kill plants, rather than enhancing their growth. Maturity is not related to quality, but to what stage in the composting process the material...

Spatial Arrangement of Vegetation

The homestead irrespective of ecologically distinct locations has a multilayered spatial arrangement of vegetation (Fig. 16.7). Vegetation layer varies from homestead to homestead, which may usually range from three to five (Yoshino 1996 Ahmed 1999 Bashar 1999 Basak 2002 Hussain and Miah 2004) and even up to Fig. 16.5 Backyard of a homestead with vegetables, fruit, and timber species Fig. 16.5 Backyard of a homestead with vegetables, fruit, and timber species Fig. 16.6 Homestead boundary having...

Generalized Composting Process

Composting is the aerobic decomposition of biodegradable organic matter, producing compost. The decomposition is performed primarily by facultative and obligate aerobic bacteria, yeasts, and fungi, and also helped in the cooler initial and ending phases by a number of larger organisms, such as ants, nematodes, and oligochaete worms. Composting recycles organic household and yard waste and manures into a useful humus-like, soil end-product called compost. Ultimately, this permits the return of...

The Effect of Zearalenone in Culture In Vitro

The presence of hormones (auxins and cytokinins or substances of similar action) is required for the induction, proliferation and differentiation of cells in in vitro cultures (Maheshwari et al. 1995). The dynamic development and the introduction of in vitro techniques to micropropagation and to the study of mechanisms of physiological processes have resulted in the need for the search for new groups of substances playing a role similar to those of plant hormones. Fusicoccine, cotynine,...

Allelopathy

Allelopathy is defined as biochemical interactions between one plant or microorganism (alga, bacteria, or virus) and another plant through the production of chemical compounds - secondary metabolites (allelochemicals), which influence, direct or indirect, harmful or beneficial, plant growth and development (Rice 1984). Allelochemicals are present in almost all plants and in many tissues, like leaves, stems, flowers, fruits, seeds, roots, or pollen and may be released from plants into the...

Cover Crops with Allelopathic Potential

Providing weed suppression through the use of allelopathic cover crops is an important method of weed control in organic farming and it is one of the best possibilities of allelopathy application (Sullivan 2003a). Besides, growing of cover crops provide soil protection against erosion and better water infiltration, decrease nutrient losses especially nitrogen, improve soil physical and chemical characteristics, increase soil organic matter and biological diversity and reduce pressures of...

Effects on Weeds

Weed management by soil solarization was widely investigated with variable responses either in field or greenhouse studies (Elmore 1991b Yaduraju and Mishra 2004), though the best results were always reported in hot climate countries (Al-Masoom et al. 1993 Saghir 1997) (Fig. 9.5). Solarization effects on weed population was hypothesized to be due to different mechanisms, such as changes in cell metabolism and ultrastructure (Singla et al. 1997), microbial parasitism on seeds weakened by...

Influence of Exogenous Zearalenone on Plant Generative Development

For agriculture plants, effective flowering is a very important process. In this process, a vegetative meristem changes into a reproductive meristem which is capable of forming floral organs and in this way completes the reproductive life cycle of higher plants (Bernier and Perillex 2005). How the vegetative meristem is able to perceive and interpret signals from the environment as well as from the plant itself is largely unknown. The process by which vernalization - the exposure of a...

Crop Protection

Many references suggest that an increase in weed, pest and disease pressure in agroecosystems is due to changes in agricultural practices and cropping systems especially rotation, fertilization and application of agrochemicals that contribute to greater intensification (Altieri and Nicholls 2003). Conventional farming tends to rely on synthetic chemicals and some genetically modified crop varieties for pest, disease and weed control, but these are explicitly avoided in organic farming systems,...

Reference Of G N Agrios In Case Of Soil Solarization

Abawi GS, Widmer TL (2000) Impact of soil health management practices on soilborne pathogens, nematodes and root diseases of vegetable crops. Appl Soil Ecol 15 37-47 Abbasi PA, Al-Dahmani J, Sahin F, Hoitink HAJ, Miller SA (2002) Effect of compost amendments on disease severity and yield of tomato in conventional and organic production systems. Plant Dis 86 156-161 Abbona EA, Sarando'n SJ, Marasas ME, Astier M (2007) Ecological sustainability evaluation of traditional management in different...

Energy Crops

In general, the term biomass is applied to renewable energy sources, referring to organic materials that are viable as sources of energy or may be converted to biofuels, which may be used as energy sources. The majority of biomass resources fit into the broad categories of energy crops, residues (by-products of existing crops) and waste products produced directly or indirectly from the solar conversion process. According to Bassam (1998) who provided a...

Homestead Agroforestry A Platform for Employment and Economic Security

A vast majority of rural people in Bangladesh who cultivate land for crop production remains unemployed for a considerable period of the year because of seasonality of production activities and labor requirements. Homestead farming is the best answer to such unemployment situation through both vegetable growing, and culture of quick growing fruits enabling the people to remain employed round the year (Ahmad 1995). It has been found that over the decades, small-scale homestead activities have...

Plastic Film

Soil Solarization Film

Function of a plastic film in the solarizing process is to increase soil temperature by allowing passage of solar radiation while reducing energetic radiative and convective losses (Papadakis et al. 2000). Transmission of solar radiation by plastic films was found related to their radiometric properties and mainly transmissivity, as higher values of solar transmissivity coefficient resulted in higher temperature rises under the mulch (Scarascia-Mugnozza et al. 2004 Vox et al. 2005). However,...

Effect on Phytoparasitic Nematodes

Effectiveness of soil solarization on phytoparasitic nematodes was generally found less consistent than on phytopathogenic fungi and weeds (Lamberti and Greco 1991 McGovern and McSorley 1997). Greater soil depths inhabited by phytopathogenic nematodes and their rapid migration to upper soil layers after solarization treatment, as resulting in a quicker recolonization of solarized soil compared to fungal pathogens and weeds, were hypothesized to account for this lower effectiveness (Porter and...

Nonisotopic and 13C Isotopic Approaches to Calculate Soil Organic Carbon Maintenance Requirement

Clay, Gregg Carlson, and Sharon A. Clay Abstract To meet long-term food, energy, and fiber security requirements, production systems must be sustainable. A critical component in sustainable agricultural systems is the maintenance of soil organic carbon. Soil organic carbon (SOC) maintenance requires, over time, the amount of carbon added to soil to be equal to the amount of relic carbon mineralized. Obtaining the information required for maintenance calculations...

Soil Solarization and Integrated Pest Management

Integrated pest management, i.e., the combined use of multiple control methods to maintain pest damage below an economic threshold, is one of the fundaments of sustainable agriculture, as choice of pest management tactics specifically addressed to cropping systems and technical conditions optimizes performances of existing tactics and eliminates unnecessary pesticide applications (Mullen et al. 1997 Perrin 1997 Martin 2003). Soil solarization demonstrated a large suitability for integrated pest...

Origin Domestication and Dispersal Routes of Common Bean

Over a period of at least 7,000 years, the common bean has evolved from a wild-growing into a major leguminous food crop. During this period, which encompasses the initial domestication phase and the subsequent evolution under cultivation, evolutionary forces (mutation, selection, migration, and genetic drift) have acted on the raw material provided by wild-growing populations in Middle America and Andean South America. It is only since the late twentieth century that scientist have accepted a...

Reference Soil Solarization

Abd El-Megid MS, Ibrahim AS, Khalid SA, Satour MM (1998) Studies on vegetable transplants using seed-bed solarization improvement of onion transplant characters and smut disease control. In Stapleton JJ, DeVay JE, Elmore CL(eds) Proceedings of the second international conference on soil solarization and integrated management of soil-borne pests, Aleppo, Syrian Arab Republic, 16-21 March 1997. FAO Plant Protection and Production Paper 147, FAO, Rome, Italy, pp 165-174 Abdel-Rahim MF, Satour MM,...

Diversity of Microbes

Several studies have investigated microbial communities under organic and conventional systems. Overall, reports on differences in bacterial communities between organic and conventional systems are not so limited (Foissner 1992 Wander et al. 1995 Yeates et al. 1997 Shannon et al. 2002 Girvan et al. 2003 Hole et al. 2005 van Diepeningen et al. 2006), but differences in fungal communities are scanty (Shannon et al. 2002 Sekiguchi et al. 2007). However, there is evidence of a general trend towards...

Need for Savings in Environmentally Relevant Resources 551 Fertilisers

Fertilisers are an essential prerequisite for obtaining acceptable biomass yields. The average contribution of fertilisers to yields ranges from 40 to 60 and tends to be higher in the tropics Stewart et al. 2005 . However, most fertilisers are produced on base of exhaustible raw materials and or are sources of environmental Fig. 5.3 Statistical distribution of measured poplar yields in Germany divided into subspecies. Result of a survey of a total of n 357 yield data of various poplar stands of...

Formulation Storage and Quality

The important aspects, which are to be kept in mind for commercialization of entomopathogenic nematodes as biocontrol agent are formulation, storage and quality control. Formulation refers to the preparation of a product from an ingredient by the addition of certain active functional and non-active inert substances. It provides means to improve the activity, delivery, ease to use, storage stability and field efficacy of the nematodes. Entomopathogenic nematode species have differential...