Renewable Energy In The World Today

In 2006, about 12.3 of world total primary energy consumption (TPES, includes all forms of energy) came from renewables, with the largest large fraction (10.1 ) coming from traditional biomass sources, such as wood-burning. Hydroelectricity was the next largest renewable source, providing 2.2 of TPES in 2008, as well accounting for 16 of global electricity Figure 1 World renewable energy supply capacity by the end of 2008, broken down in electricity generation (units GW), thermal generation...

Electrodialysis with bipolar membranes

Electrodialysis with bipolar membranes utilizes water dissociation of bipolar membranes in an electrodialysis stack for the production of acids and bases from the corresponding salts. The process and the stack design are in many aspects similar to conventional electrodialysis. The key element in electrodialysis with bipolar membranes is the bipolar membrane. Its performance determines to a very large extent the technical feasibility and economics of the process 25 . 4.2.1 The bipolar membrane,...

Pilot testing and upscaling1

Statkraft, an energy utility owned by the Norwegian government, is today the largest generator of renewable energy in Europe. With generation capacity within hydropower, wind power, gas power, and soon also solar power, the company has a large portfolio of environmental energy solutions. But it is clear to the company that to maintain a leading position within renewable energy it is necessary to focus on innovation with a clear ambition to deliver the energy solutions of the future. With over...

Example of MBR application for wastewater reuse City of Key Colony Beach Florida MBR used as pretreatment for reverse

By 1998, the City of Key Colony Beach's (Fig. 10) municipal wastewater treatment plant had reached its rated capacity, limiting development opportunities. The city anticipated that stringent effluent requirements of 5 mg L biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids (TSS), 3 mg L total nitrogen (TN), and 1 mg L total phosphorous (TP) would likely be imposed in the future because of the coastal discharge. The existing treatment facility would be unable to achieve this effluent...

Smallscale Renewable Energy Powered Membrane Filtration Plants

Membrane-driven processes account for over half the existing renewable energy powered desalination in existence. Some of the reasons for this include that they are a modular technology, easy to install, compact in size, and simple to operate. Many of these advantages are also mirrored by renewable energy microgenerators, such as PV modules. These are also modular, contain no moving parts, have a long life (> 20-year warranty) and involve low maintenance. The modularity of both of these...

Outcomes And Future Considerations

The pilot, bench-scale, and desktop studies undertaken for the Las Vegas Valley indicate that desalination, while technically feasible, is costly. The initial estimates were, at best, 4.73 kgaP1 with substantial water loss involved. The follow-up study indicated that an optimized ZLD system could be set in operation at a cost of 4.51 kgaP1 with improved water recovery and reduced energy consumption. However, these costs still compare unfavorably to production costs of less than 1.23 kgaP1 for...

Conclusion A Summary of Challenges still Facing Desalination and Water Reuse

Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, The University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, MS 305, Toledo, OH 43606-3390, USA 1. Challenges Facing Desalination 390 2. Challenges Facing Water Reuse 391 3. Cross-Cutting Needs 393 3.1. Implementation of novel processes (forward osmosis) 393 3.3. Public perception 394 References 395 In water-scarce regions, two sources of water are normally available sewage and seawater. In the last decade, the reclamation of effluents has developed...

Water Recycling In Australia

It could be assumed that due to successful examples, the idea of water recycling would be picked up easily in other regions with similar water supply problems, in the Middle East, Asia, northern Africa, the southwest USA, and Australia. However, public perception is still problematic, impeding new initiatives. This was proved again in 2006 in Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia, where a poll to mix treated wastewater with raw surface water for drinking water production had a negative outcome....

Strategies For Inland Brine Disposal Zld And Fluidized Bed Crystallizers

Innovative strategies have been suggested to address the issue of brine disposal with inland desalination. One inland plant constructed a 30 km pipeline to send concentrate to the sea 21 while another proposed project will send, by gravity, concentrate from Red Sea desalination plants to the Dead Sea, producing energy, disposing of the brine, and returning much-needed volume of liquid to the Dead Sea 22 . Such innovative solutions are more a rarity than the norm, however. As such, considerable...

Acknowledgments

This study was funded through Australian Research Council (ARC) Discovery Grant (DP0878338). We thank our Research Assistant, Sarah Oberklaid, for her help with formatting the tables. 1 Government of Victoria, Sustainable Water Strategy, Central Region Action to 2055. Melbourne, Department of Sustainability and Environment, available online at www.dse.vic.gov.au, 2006, Date accessed 19 August 2009. 2 Government of South Australia, Securing Tomorrow's Water Today Our four-way strategy. Adelaide,...

Conclusions

There are many motivations for choosing renewable energy technologies to provide the necessary energy to power water treatment systems for reuse and desalination. These range from the lack of an existing electricity grid, particularly in remote areas, to securing future energy and water supplies, to purely financial incentives. While many renewable energy technologies exist, the two dominant ones used for powering desalination systems are PV modules and wind turbines. While wave power devices...

Conclusions And Further Challenges

From the number and nature of water recycling projects throughout the world, it can be concluded that the principle of treating wastewater as a valuable source becomes increasingly accepted. The larger demand of water due to population growth and increased comfort is translated into better protection of sources and eventually, zero discharge or nearly zero discharge systems. A remarkable observation is that in none of these projects adverse health effects were obtained, even on a long...

Applications of bipolar membrane electrodialysis

Since bipolar membranes became available as commercial products in 1977 5 , a very large number of potential applications has been identified and has been studied extensively on a laboratory or pilot plant scale 31 . However, in spite of the obvious technical and economical advantages of the technology, large-scale industrial plants are still quite rare. The main reasons for the reluctant use of bipolar membrane electrodialysis are shortcomings of the available bipolar and monopolar membranes,...

An Overview of the Global Water Situation

Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, The University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, MS 305, Toledo, OH 43606-3390, USA According to the International Water Management Institute (IWMI), one in three people globally endures some form of water scarcity, one-quarter of the world's population lives in areas where water is physically scarce, and over one billion people live where water is economically scarce, or places where water is available in rivers and aquifers, but the...

The Global Water Recycling Situation

Leuven, Department of Chemical Engineering, Section Applied Physical Chemistry and Environmental Technology, W. de Croylaan 46, B-3001 Heverlee (Leuven), Belgium 2. Short History of Reuse Applications 43 3. Water Recycling Today 44 4. Water Recycling in the USA 45 5. Water Recycling in Asia 52 6. Water Recycling in Europe 54 7. Water Recycling in Australia 56 8. Water Recycling in other Parts of the World 58 9. Conclusions and Further Challenges 60 References 61 The awareness that water...

Conclusion

In summary, several technologies for concentrate treatment are emerging and some may offer the potential of enhanced water recovery and reduced concentrate. However, no one technology is appropriate for all instances. Table 3 provides an overview of the status of the technologies presented in Table 3 Summary of concentrate minimization technologies status, costs, and limitations Table 3 Summary of concentrate minimization technologies status, costs, and limitations Brackish water, seawater, and...

Applications of electrodialysis

Conventional electrodialysis is today commercially by far the most relevant ion-exchange membrane separation process. Electrodialysis was first developed for the desalination of brackish water to produce potable water. In this application, electrodialysis is replaced today to some extent by other membrane processes such as reverse osmosis and nanofiltration. Nevertheless, water desalination is still the most important large-scale application of electrodialysis. But other applications of...

Water Recycling In Other Parts Of The World

Reverse Recycling

Water recycling is an obvious choice in water-stressed regions where it is the only option to grow or even to survive. Many of these regions can be often found in less developed regions in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. In Africa, the Goreangab reclamation plant in Windhoek, Namibia, is the typical example. Namibia has ca. 1.8 million inhabitants and has an average annual rainfall of 285 mm. There are large differences in rainfall. In the south, bordering South Africa, the Oranje River is an...

Summary of literature published on MBRs for wastewater reuse

The use of MBRs for wastewater reuse applications is still in its infancy and research teams worldwide are focusing their attention on characterizing the performance of MBRs for wastewater reuse and developing approaches to optimize the treatment efficacy. Table 7 summarizes the results from some recent studies on the use of MBRs for wastewater reuse applications. 1 Business Communication Company, Membrane Bioreactors in the Changing World Water Market, Wellesley, MA, 2006. 2 J. Mallevialle,,...

Global Desalination Situation

Reverse Osmosis Growth Countries

Kennedy2, Jan C. Schippers2 and Gary Amy2 11nstitute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment (ICBM), University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany 2. Historical Development 8 3. Global Installed Desalination Capacity 11 3.1. Projected Growth of the Desalination Market 11 3.2. Global capacity by source water type 11 3.3. Global capacity by process 11 3.4. Global capacity by use type 12 3.5. Global capacity by plant size 14 3.6. Costs and energy demand of...