Equatorial Countercurrent

Equatorial countercurrents are major surface flows that carry water eastward in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans. They are located near the equator and are sandwiched between two westward-flowing currents, the North Equatorial Current and the South Equatorial Current. Equatorial counter-currents are unique, in that they flow in the opposite direction of the surface winds. The other major surface currents in the tropics flow in the same direction as the prevailing winds. The equatorial...

San Marino

THE LAND-LocKED REPuBLic, entirely surrounded by Italy, has a land area of 23.5 sq. mi. (61 sq. km.), with a population of 31,000 (2006 est.) and a population density of 1,198 people per sq. mi. (461 people per sq. km.), the 20th highest density in the world. It is a very prosperous country, with gross domestic product per capita being US 34,600. As a result, it makes heavy use of electricity air conditioning in the hot summers and heating for the winter, as well as regular domestic and...

Carbon Footprint

A CARBON FOOTpRINT is defined as the total amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases such as methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydro-fluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) emitted directly and indirectly to support human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, livestock raising, and agricultural production. Calculating a carbon footprint is a tool for understanding the amount of global warming gases everyday...

Convection

Currents moving in fluids are convection. More specifically, fluids liquids, gases, and rheids undergo movements as convection currents. Convection plays a major role in heat transfers. In fluids, both movement of mass in the fluid, and the heat it contains, occurs in a random way, if Brownian motion occurs. However, in the process of advection, large motions develop in the fluid, which move not only its mass, but also the energy it contains. Convection means the transfer of mass and heat by...

Central African Republic

A former French colony in central Africa, the Central African Republic is entirely landlocked and has an area of 240,534 sq. mi. (622,984 sq. km.), with a population of 4,216,666 (2007 est.), and a population density of 17.5 people per sq. mi. (6.8 people per sq. km.). The country is poor, with 3 percent of the land arable, and a further 5 percent used for meadows and pasture. In spite of this, many of the desperately poor people in the country survive through subsistence farming. Some 64...

Colorado Climate Center

The COLORADO Climate Center (CCC) is part of the Department of Atmospheric Science in the College of Engineering at Colorado State University. The aim of the center is to assist the state of Colorado in monitoring climate change over time, ranging from weeks to years. The CCC provides climate-related services to business, government, industry, researchers, educators, and the general public. The center tries to understand the complex interactions between the atmosphere, oceans, continental...

Somalia

Located in northeast Africa the Horn of Africa Somalia has a land area of 246,201 sq. mi. (637,657 sq. km.), with a population of 8,699,000 (2006 est.) and a population density of 34 people per sq. mi. (13 people per sq. km.). About 80 percent of the population is dependent on agriculture, though only 2 percent of the land is arable, with a further 69 percent used for meadows or pasture, mainly low-intensity grazing of cattle, goats, and pigs. Some 14 percent of the land is forested. Because...

Department of State uS

THE AREAS OF responsibility of the Department of State are the United States' foreign policy. Also, how foreign policy may impact U.S. security. Therefore, its interests in global warming and climate change are only to the degree that these phenomena may affect international policy or national security. According to a June 2007 Report to Congress, called The Senator Paul Simon Water for the Poor Act 2005 (P. L. 109-121), Climate variability is a measure of the degree to which rainfall and...

Jurassic

THE JURASSIC PERIOD extended from about 199 million years ago to 145 million years ago. This geological time period constitutes the middle of the Mesozoic era, also known as the Age of Dinosaurs. The start of the period is marked by the major Triassic-Jurassic extinction event. This period was named by Alexandre Brogniart for the extensive marine limestone exposures of the Jura Mountains, in the region where Germany, France and Switzerland meet. During the early Jurassic, the supercontinent...

Nongovernmental Organizations NGOs

NONGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGOS), while a comparatively modern phenomenon, have existed in the form of charitable organizations or political associations since the 18th century. During the 18th and 19th centuries, many people formed specific, community-based organizations, designed to meet specific community needs, or to advance particular policies. The issues targeted by these groups were broad in scope and included women's rights, the status of the poor, local government reform issues,...

Perfluorocarbons

The perfluorocarbons are a group of chemically related greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto Protocol. Although emissions of perfluorocarbons are low compared to many other pollutants, they are of great concern because the perfluorocarbons are extremely powerful greenhouse gases with very long atmospheric lifetimes. Furthermore, the release of man-made perfluorocarbons is on the rise, due to increasing aluminum and semiconductor chip manufacture. Annual releases of PFM, the most abundant...

Chamberlin Thomas C 18431928

CHAMBERLIN was an American glacial geologist and educator who, at the turn of the 20th century, challenged the generally accepted Laplacian theory that the Earth was formed by hot gases and was gradually becoming cooler. He suggested the plan-etesimal hypothesis, arguing that the planets were formed after a star passed near the Sun, pulling away material from both bodies that later condensed into the planets. Chamberlin was one of the first scientists to emphasize the role of carbon...

Radiant Energy And Ocean Current

Radiant energy from the Sun is not uniformly distributed across the globe, because the Earth is spherical. Specifically, more energy per a given surface area arrives at the tropics, where the Sun is more directly overhead, than arrives at the poles where sunlight strikes the Earth at a greater angle. This has a number of effects. Evaporation is higher in these tropical waters, thereby affecting the concentration of ions in the water. This concentration of ions, in turn, increases tropical...

Somali current

The SOMALi current can be found on the surface of the northern Indian Ocean, serving as a western boundary of this ocean. It is a movement of waters around the Indian Ocean, dispersing heat. Atmospheric circulation and ocean circulation together are the major mechanisms for global heat distribution. As atmospheric circulation defines large-scale air movements around the globe, ocean circulation refers to the patterned movement of particular waters. In summer, a southwest monsoon blows upward...

Romanticism And Conservation

Researchers and other intellectuals, including artists, began to recognize the local impacts of environmental degradation around the turn of the 19th century in the United States and Europe. For scientists, powers of observation were based on empiricism and the scientific method that were honed during the Enlightenment. Artists and intellectuals observed natural beauty and captured it in the painting, music, and literature of the Romantic period. Romanticism emerged along with the Industrial...

Glaciers retreating

There are glaciers in all areas of the globe. Most glaciers are found in the polar regions, but many of the Earth's tallest mountains also have glaciers. Glaciers go through life cycles. They have growing years, moving years, and retreating years. For glaciers to form, very specific climatic conditions are necessary. They are usually found where there is enough snowfall for a snow pack to permanently accumulate, where summers are not warm enough for all of the snow to melt. In some regions,...

Bahamas

LOCATED IN THE Caribbean, the Bahamas consists of an archipelago of more than 700 islands that cover about 100,000 sq. mi. (160,934 sq. km. ) of ocean, and a land area of only 5,378 sq. mi. (13,878 sq. km.). It has a population of 323,000 (2003 est.), with a population density of 60 people per sq. mi. (23.27 per sq. km.), although on the island of New Providence in the capital of Nassau, there are 4,402 people per sq. mi. (1,693 per sq. km.). Much of the economy of the nation comes from...

International solar Energy society IsEs

THE INTERNATIoNAL soLAR Energy Society is an international nonprofit, nongovernmental organization with a focus on the development and diffusion of renewable energy technologies. The society has 30,000 members globally from industry, research, and government there are national sections in 54 countries. The following goals are stated in the society's mandate to encourage the use and acceptance of renewable energy technologies to realize a global community of industry, individuals, and...

International Geophysical Year IGY

THE INTERNATIONAL GEOPHYSICAL Year (IGY), in French, Ann e G ophysique Internationale, took place between July 1, 1957 and December 31, 1958. The International Council for Science (ICSU) began designing it in 1952. The ICSU addresses global issues through international initiatives aimed to support scientists. A successful example of these initiatives, besides the International Geophysical Year, is the International Biological Program, which took place 1964-74. The International Geophysical Year...

Volcanism

MEMBERs of The scientific community by and large concur that the Earth is undergoing a change in climate and that global warming is occurring at an increasing rate. In fact, scientific modeling suggests that Earth will experience an increase in temperature during the next 100 years at a pace up to four times greater than that in the previous 100 years. To a large extent this acceleration in the late 20th century is attributed to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions generated by human activity. Carbon...

Mississippi state university

Mississippi state university offers several educational options in the areas of meteorology and climatology. The Department of Geosciences offers on-campus undergraduate and graduate degrees in Geosciences, with optional emphases in broadcast meteorology, professional meteorology, climatology, geology, geography, and geographic information systems (GIS). The department also offers a distance-learning graduate degree specifically for Kindergarten-12 teachers and distance-learning certificate...

Honduras

The republic of Honduras lies in Central America, and has coastlines with the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. Honduras has a land area of 43,278 sq. mi. (112,492 sq. km.), with a population of 7,326,496 (2006 est.), and a population density of 166 people U.S. aid workers rush food, shelter, water and medical aid to Hondurans made homeless by Hurricane Mitch in 1998. U.S. aid workers rush food, shelter, water and medical aid to Hondurans made homeless by Hurricane Mitch in 1998. the most...

Thermodynamics

THE SCIENCE OF thermodynamics, a branch of physics, aims to describe transformations in energy. Thermodynamics comprises three laws. The first holds that energy can neither be created nor destroyed. Energy in various forms may be transformed into heat (thermal energy) and heat may be transformed into another form of energy so long as the total energy in the system remains constant. The second law states that entropy, a measure of the amount of energy dissipated as heat, increases over time in a...

Arctic And SuBarctic IssuES

To strengthen the global response, CIEL's Climate Change Program focuses on impacts to people and ecosystems of the Arctic and subarctic. The program works to protect the Earth's climate system through promotion of human rights, forest conservation, and biodiversity protection. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the destructive effects of climate change will not only affect the environment, but also Arctic peoples. Average annual temperatures in the Arctic have...

Advocacy and operational ngos

The World Bank differentiates between operational and advocacy NGOs, where an operational NGO focuses on the design and implementation of development-related projects, such as service delivery, and an advocacy NGO defends or promotes a specific cause. A good example of an operational NGO is that of the work of the International Medicine Corps (IMC) in Afghanistan. In this case, the IMC instituted a vaccination campaign against measles, a disease that was identified by the World Health...

Conservation And Climate Change

Knowledge about climate change has come slowly alongside the emergence of the conservation and, later, environmental movements. Differing approaches to conservation moved toward a more holistic understanding of human impact on dynamic environmental processes. For example, in an 1867 report to the Wisconsin Legislature, I.A. Lapham showed the relation of forests to stream flow. His suggestion about the need to plant more trees to protect watersheds foreshadowed the conservation movement. At...

Orbital parameters Obliquity

The earth's ORBIT and orientation around the Sun affects how solar energy is received. Obliquity is the degree of the Earth's tilt as it completes its daily rotation and yearly revolution around the Sun. It is the angle an imaginary rotational axis would make with the plane of the Earth's orbit. The axial tilt, which varies over time from 21.5 to 24.5 degrees and back again, is the reason for the seasons. A complete tilt cycle takes 41,000 years to complete. In concert with the eccentricity of...

The Keeling Curve

Charles David Keeling of California developed a device for measuring the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere in parts per million. During the Geophysical Year 1957-58, he took many readings at different locations on the surface of the Earth. These included the top of Hawaiian volcanoes that were (at the time) far from industries. He also took readings in all manner of other places and used these to construct the Keeling Curve. The Keeling Curve shows that the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere has...

The Climates Of Africa

The climate is not uniform, but rather varies by locale. From this, it follows that the continents have a multiplicity of climates. Africa, the cradle of humanity, has a Mediterranean climate in its coastland along the Mediterranean Sea. The sea imparts its heat to North Africa. But, the sea breeze does not penetrate far into Africa, making only a thin strip of coastline Mediterranean in climate. The sea absorbs heat in summer and retains this heat into autumn, radiating it to Mediterranean...

Precambrian era

The precambrian era, or Supereon, refers to the geological time comprising the eons that came before the Phanerozoic eon. This time spans from the formation of Earth around 4.5 billion years ago to the evolution of abundant macroscopic hard-shelled animals, which marked the beginning of the Cambrian era, the first period of the first era of the Phanerozoic eon. The Precambrian era encompasses 86 percent of the Earth's history, however very little is known about this time period. In fact, the...

Greenhouse effect

Human activities can disrupt the balance of the natural system that regulates the temperature on Most of Earth's heat is re-radiated toward space, but some is trapped by greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This is a natural effect that keeps Earth's temperature at a level necessary to support life. Human activity particularly burning fossil fuels (coal, oil, and natural gas) and land clearing is generating more greenhouse gases. Scientists are convinced that this will trap more heat and raise...

Chronology

The Earth, newly formed, had the hottest climate in the planet's long history. Temperatures were hot enough to liquefy rock. Radioactive elements in Earth's core generated heat and pressure as they decayed, pushing molten rock toward Earth's surface. Volcanoes also brought molten rock to the surface, liberating heat. Volcanoes spewed carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, causing the Greenhouse Effect. As the mass of radioactive elements in Earth's core diminished, the climate cooled and the first...

Oregon State university

Oregon state university (OSU) is a four-year research and degree-granting public university, located in Corvallis, Oregon in the United States. Total student enrollment (undergraduate and graduate) is more than 19,000. Eighty-one percent of students are Oregon residents. OSU offers more than 200 academic degree programs and is most noted for engineering, environmental sciences, forestry, oceanography, and pharmacy. The university has more majors, minors, and special programs than any other...

Lebanon

Problems regarding archiving, accessibility, and documentation of the group's results, and relating to the integrity and reproducibility of the group's modeling experiments. Typically, the published data of modelers consists of figures, processed data, and tables of area averaged, depth-integrated, time-smoothed data. Due primarily to size constraints, the computer output is not available for further analysis. In addition, the source code for the models themselves is not easily reproduced. Even...

Colorado State university

COLORADO State uNIVERSITY is a premier system of public higher education committed to excellence, setting the standard in teaching, research, and service. The board of governors presides over Colorado State University (CSU), which is composed of Colorado State University (located in Fort Collins, Colorado) and CSU-Pueblo. At Colorado State, research and outreach from the sciences to the humanities are advancing on multiple fronts to explore climate-change phenomena and find solutions. The...

Energy Balance Models

ENERGY Balance Models represent the First Law of Thermodynamics applied to a system. In climatology, energy balance models are used for the Earth-atmosphere system. This is a closed thermo-dynamic system because it does not exchange matter with the surrounding environment, or space. Energy balance models can be applied to the Earth-atmosphere systems for different timescales such as a year, day, or hour. Depending on the timescale, the models would produce an annual, daily, or hourly...

Renewable Energy Potential

Although renewable energy technologies are unreliable for the world's present energy demand, the market is growing for many forms of renewable energy. Approximately 74,223 MW of power is generated from windmills worldwide. Several European countries and the United States produce the largest percentage of wind energy. Denmark is the world leader in this technology. The present worldwide manufacturing output of the photovol-taics (PV) industry is more than 2,000 MW per year. Japan, Germany, and...

Doldrums

DOLDRUMS ARE TECHNICALLY known as the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), the intertropical front, the monsoon trough, or the equatorial convergence zone, the doldrums are a belt of low pressure surrounding the earth at the equator. It is formed by the vertical ascent of warm, moist air from the latitudes above and below the equator. The air is drawn into the ITCZ by the action of the Hadley cell, a macroscale atmospheric feature that is part of the Earth's heat and moisture distribution...

American Meteorological Society

THE AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL Society (AMS) supports the growth and diffusion of information and education on the atmospheric and related oceanic and hydrologic sciences and the development of their professional applications. Founded in 1919, AMS has a membership of more than 11,000 professionals, professors, students, and weather enthusiasts. AMS publishes nine atmospheric and related oceanic and hydrologic journals, both in print and online and sponsors more than 12 conferences annually. It...

Peruvian current

ORIGINATING IN THE frigid waters offthe coast of Antarctica, the Peruvian Current moves north along the western coast of South America. When in reaches the continental shelf along South America, the current rises, carrying cold water with it to the surface of the Pacific Ocean. The prevailing winds of the South Pacific and Earth's rotation cause the Peruvian Current to rotate the Coriolis Force causes the current to rotate clockwise. The Peruvian Current extends 125 mi. (201 km.) west from the...

Alternatives To Fossil Fuels

The phrase Alternative energy implies that these energy sources are alternatives to nuclear and traditional fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum, or natural gas. Alternative energy, therefore, is a catchall category of energy sources that proponents argue can replace traditional fossil fuels in daily life, while causing less harm to the environment. Alternative energy is increasingly important for at least three reasons. First, fossil fuels are nonrenewable eventually, they will be exhausted....

Solar Energy Industries Association SEIA

The solar energy Industry Association (SEIA) is an American trade association for the solar industry, working to expand markets, strengthen and develop research, and improve education for the employment of solar energy. SEIA is affiliated with the PVNow coalition of photovoltaic companies, which aims to expand the North American-distributed, grid-connected photovoltaic market opportunities and eliminate market barriers. They are pursuing this goal through lobbying key state legislatures,...

The Early Eocene Climatic Optimum

The Early Eocene Climatic Optimum lasted for over 2 million years, and was characterized by warm and equable (meaning the climate was relatively similar everywhere) conditions. Deciduous, temperate forests covered Antarctica, and palm trees marched north across Wyoming and into Arctic Canada. Summer temperatures in the Arctic Ocean were approximately 59 degrees F (33 degrees C), almost 30 degrees F (17 degrees C) warmer than today, while ocean surface temperatures in the tropics were hardly...

Waves Kelvin

Kelvin waves AFFECTING weather and climate occur in both the oceans and the atmosphere. These low-frequency, gravity-driven waves propagate vertically and parallel to boundaries (e.g., equator, coastline, air masses, and topography). Kelvin waves are nondispersive and carry energy from one point to another. The height or amplitude of a Kelvin wave is highest near the boundary where it propagates the wave height decreases as the wave moves farther away from the boundary. In the Northern...

Atmospheric Composition

ALL LIFE on Earth exists within a thin film of air, water, and soil about 9.3 mi. (15 km.) deep. This spherical shell of life is known as the biosphere. The biosphere can be divided into three layers the atmosphere (air), the hydrosphere (water), and the lithosphere (rock and soil). The unique attributes of the Earth's atmosphere create a habitable place for humans, animals, and plants. It reaches over 348 mi. (560 km.) from the surface of the Earth. The atmosphere is a mixture of gases and...

The Koppen Climate Classification System

In 1900, the Russian-German climatologist Vladimir Koppen presented the scientific community with a system for classifying the world's climates. Today, it is called the Koppen Climate Classification System. It divides the Earth's surface into climatic regions that generally coincide with world patterns of vegetation and soils. The system has five major climate types. These are based on averages of annual rainfall and temperatures. The annual averages are combined with the monthly rain and...

Manabe Syukuro

From electricity, heavily used for air conditioning, the entire electricity production in the country comes from fossil fuels, accounting for 40 percent of all carbon dioxide emissions coming from solid fuels. The remaining 60 percent of the carbon dioxide emissions is from liquid fuels, with transportation making up 15 percent of the country's entire emissions. In spite of its small size, there is a high private ownership of automobiles, many of which are increasingly old and inefficient in...

Alliance of Small Island States

THE ALLIANCE OF Small Island States (AOSIS) is an umbrella lobby and negotiating body representing the interests of low-lying and small island states at the level of the United Nations. AOSIS has played an important role in shaping international climate change policy by ensuring that the concerns of small island developing states are represented on an international level. Specifically, AOSIS has been a leading advocate for reductions in global greenhouse gas emissions. Operating on an ad hoc...

Brunei Darussalam

LOCATED ON THE north coast of Borneo, Negara Brunei Darussalam has a land area of2,226 sq. mi. (5,765 sq. km.), and is divided into two parts. It has a population of 383,990 (2007 est.), and a population density of 168 people per sq. mi. (65 people per sq. km.). The country has abundant petroleum and gas supplies, which produce most of the its wealth, with one percent of the land being arable, and another one percent used for meadows and pasture. Unlike most of the other major...

Canadian Association for Renewable Energies

Incorporated IN 1998, the Canadian Association for Renewable Energies is an organization dedicated to the promotion of feasible applications of renewable energy in Canada. The objectives of the association are to promote greater awareness of the benefits of renewable energies to Canada's economy, environment, and society advance the adoption of renewable energies and undertake research that will optimize renewable energy technologies. Membership is open to institutions, corporations, and...

Albedo

Albedo originates from a Latin word albus, which means white. Albedo is the amount of sunlight (of all wavelengths) that is reflected back from an object or a substance. The more the amount of light reflected back, the brighter the color of the object. A lesser amount of light is reflected back from darker objects. The albedo of an object varies from 0-1. Black objects have zero albedo, while white objects have an albedo of one. Sometimes it is also expressed in terms of percentage, 1-100. An...

Oregon Climate service

THE OREGON CLIMATE Service at Oregon State University offers monthly climate statistics for various stations in Oregon. It is located on the Oregon State University campus in Corvallis, Oregon, and is the state depository for weather and climate information. It is affiliated with Oregon State University's College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences (COAS). Oregon Climate Service data may be accessed on the World Wide Web. They include a monthly means and extremes dataset for stations throughout...

Blizzards

IN HIGH And mid-latitudes, blizzards are some of the most widespread and hazardous of weather events. They are most common in Russia and central and northeastern Asia, northern Europe, Canada, the northern United States, and Antarctica. It is likely that climate change will give rise to changes in the number, severity, and geographical occurrence of blizzards. Although it is common for the term blizzard to be employed to refer to any disruptive winter storm, there is a more precise scientific...

Two layers of the atmosphere

Based on chemical composition, the atmosphere is divided into two broad layers the homosphere and the heterosphere. The homosphere extends up to the height of 56 mi. (90 km.) and is characterised by uniformity in chemical composition. It consists of three thermal layers, namely, the troposphere, the stratosphere, and the mesosphere. Each sub-layer is separated from the adjoining layer by a shallow transitional zone. The het-erosphere has heterogeneous chemical composition, with layered...

Sulphur Dioxide

Sulphur dioxide (So2) is an important component of the atmosphere, present as the result of both natural and human activity. Although it is a primary pollutant in its own right, causing respiratory irritation and damage to plants, it is the secondary pollutants produced from SO2 that are particularly important in connection with global climate change. Sulphur dioxide is notorious as the cause of acid rain, but it is also a precursor to the formation of clouds. Hence, its release to the...

Croll James 182190

JAMES CROLL WAS a 19th-century Scottish scientist who developed a theory of climate change based on variations in the Earth's orbit. Croll was the leading proponent of an astronomical theory of climate change during the 19th century. Taking into account the precession of the equinoxes, variations in the eccentricity of the orbit, and tilt of the axis, Croll proposed that climate change must be the result of the relation of the Earth to the Sun. He further speculated, geological and cosmi-cal...

Vanuatu

VANuATu is A country located in the South Pacific Ocean, composed of an archipelago of 83 volcanic islands with a population around 220,000. It has been a global leader in the development of renewable resources for sustained energy. Vanuatu is governed by a parliamentary democracy, with the prime minister, elected by Parliament, being the leader of the government. Its economy is primarily agricultural, with 80 percent of the population engaged in agricultural activities. Coconut is by far the...

Oregon

OREGON's average elevation is 3,300 ft. (1,006 m.) above sea level, with a range in elevation from sea level along the Pacific Ocean, to the peak of Mt. Hood at 11,239 ft. (3,426 m.). Mountain ranges, including the Coast Range, and the Cascades, divide Oregon. Inland from the Coast Range of mountains is the Willamette Valley, which includes the Willamette River, flowing toward the Columbia River. The Columbia Plateau is northeast of Willamette Valley and west Mountain ranges divide Oregon. West...

Climatic Data Reanalysis

REANALYSIS CLIMATIC Data is a long-term consistent climatic dataset. The dataset is produced from a state-of-the-art data assimilation system combining both past observations from various sources and short-range forecasts from simulation models to obtain the best statistical estimate of the state of the atmospheric flow. For numerical weather prediction (NWP), the observations from sources irregularly distributed in space and time are analyzed in a unified and consistent manner with the aid of...

Baleen Whales And Climate Change

A second example concerns the sustainability of baleen whales in relation to the availability of plankton and krill. Baleen whales constitute a particularly interesting example in that they simultaneously point to the importance of the ecological relationships among different species at different scales, as well as to the importance of considering the temporal complexity of these processes. Most species of whales are migratory, with complex migratory patterns across the oceans, sometimes...

Florida International university

THE uNIvERSITY IS one of the 11 public universities that make up the Florida State University System and is located in the city of Miami. The bill providing for the establishment of Florida International University (FIU) was signed into law in 1965. In 1969, the country's youngest university president at that time, Charles E Perry, took charge at 31 years of age. The university accepted its first 5,667 students in September 1972. About 38,000 students are currently enrolled in over 280 majors....

Refugees Environmental

IN THE LAST 10 years, the issue of environmental refugees has emerged as a pressing issue. Most refugees are fleeing from natural disasters such as the Asian tsunami in 2004, or as a result of the impacts of global climate change, such as sea level rise. As the executive director of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) noted in 1989, as many as 50 million people could become environmental refugees if the world does not support sustainable development. Since then, many studies have...

Mississippi

Located IN the Deep South and bordering the Gulf Coast, Mississippi is one of the poorest states in the United States, and funding for environmental programs is not always considered high-priority. Parts of Mississippi are predominately agricultural, particularly in the fertile Black Delta of the northeast and in the Mississippi Delta of the south. More than half on the state's land area is forested. The Mississippi River, from which the state takes its name, is the state's major geographic...

Climatic Data Nature of the data

Climate modeling IS the process of trying to create mathematical models that represent to the highest possible level of accuracy the circulation of wind in the atmosphere and the exchange of heat into and out of it. Since efforts at modeling began in the 19th century, those efforts have become increasingly complex and sophisticated, particularly in recent decades. Two factors have contributed to that increasing sophistication first, the dramatic improvement in computational power second, the...

Winds Westerlies 1G93

This outflow of air gives rise to the trades. As the air moves toward the equatorial low, it is deflected as a consequence of the Coriolis force (or effect). This deflection results in northeasterly trade winds in the Northern Hemisphere and southeasterly trades in the Southern Hemisphere. The trade winds are also referred to as tropical easterlies, particularly when the associated vertical wind shear is large. The polar easterlies, a belt of winds found from approximately...

Oxygen Cycle

THE OXYGEN CYCLE allows for the regeneration of freely available diatomic oxygen (O2) in the atmosphere. Oxygen accounts by volume for approximately 21 percent of the atmosphere, is reactive with myriad inorganic and organic substances, and is vital to living organisms for aerobic respiration and energy production. The cycle involves any source of oxygen within the world, and is not limited to the oxygen animals must breathe to sustain life any compound containing an atom of oxygen is...

Pivotal Agenda Points

On June 2, 2007, Secretary of Defense Robert M. Gates answered questions at the Shangri-La Security Conference. This conference focused on assisting the development of Asian nations, such as India and the Pacific nations, and connecting them with the rest of Asia. A principal goal of the conference was to foster maritime security in the Asian Pacific. Participating nations came from the Asian Pacific nations as well as Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. In an answer to a...

The Climates Of Asia

Northeast of Africa stretches Asia, a continent of contrasts. The deserts of Central Asia give way to rainforest in Southeast Asia. India and Sri Lanka host rainforests that are fed by the monsoons. Monsoons originate in the South Indian Ocean and dump their rain over large tracts of land between June and September. India and Sri Lanka derive 85 percent of their rainfall from monsoons. The west coast of India and Malaysia receive more than 75 in. (191 cm.) of rain per year. The coast of Burma...

Milankovitch Milutin 18791958

MILUTIN MILANKOVITCH, BORN in Dalj, Serbia on May 28, 1879, graduated from the Institute of Technology in Vienna, Austria in 1904. He worked as an engineer in Vienna before returning to Serbia, in 1905, to teach applied mathematics at the University of Belgrade. During the first Balkan War in 1912, he served in the military, assigned to the Danube division of the Serbian army. Milankovitch had begun a project to calculate temperatures at different latitudes and how temperature changed as a...

Little Ice

THE LiTTLE iCE Age does not cover a clear and well-defined climatic regime and time-period upon which climate scientists agree. Glaciologists, to describe the most recent major glacial advance of the Holo-cene period, originally used the phrase. Subsequently, the Little Ice Age was associated with a period of advances of European glaciers 1450-1850. It is now often associated with a climatic regime with relatively cold temperatures. However, current research does not support a...

Kuroshio Current

THE KUROSHIO CURRENT is the second largest ocean current in the world, and flows in the western Pacific from the east coast of Taiwan island, northwards to Japan, and then beyond Hokkaido past the Kuril Islands, where it merges with the North Pacific Current. In many ways, it is similar to the Gulf Stream in the Atlantic Ocean, which also carries warm tropical waters toward the polar region. The Japanese call it the Kuroshio Current, with some early English geographers translating this to the...

Penguins

FROM THE TROPics to Antarctica, penguins depend on predictable regions of high ocean productivity where their prey aggregate. There are between 16 and 19 species of penguins, all generally restricted to the southern hemisphere, with the greatest species diversity found in New Zealand. Changes in precipitation, sea ice, ocean temperature and productivity, and prey distributions associated with Changes in precipitation, sea ice, and ocean temperature associated with global warming are affecting...

Coriolis Force

BECAUSE EARTH SPINS on its axis, the Coriolis Force bends wind right or left from the direction of its flow. The Coriolis Force, therefore, causes wind to deviate from a straight path. If Earth did not spin on its axis, wind would blow following the Earth's curvature, with no deviation. A wind blowing from south to north would not deviate northeast or northwest. In 1835, French mathematician Gustave Gaspard Coriolis discovered the force that bears his name, and derived the mathematical...

Examples Of Important Ngos

The WWF has been campaigning on environmental issues for over 40 years. It has almost 5 million supporters across five continents, and is active in over 90 countries. Since 1985, this support has enabled it to invest over 1,165 million in more than 11,000 projects in 130 countries. The organization works in three interdependent areas the preservation of biological diversity, the promotion of sustainable use of resources, and the reduction of wasteful consumption and pollution. Conversely,...

Alternative Energy Ethanol

With increasing uncertainty in the global fuel market, the search for gasoline substitutes is becoming more and more important. One viable option is using ethanol as an alternative fuel, unlike fossil fuels, it is a renewable energy source. There are many chemical compounds that make up ethanol the molecules contain a hydroxyl group, and are bonded to a Carbon atom. Ethanol that is made from cellulosic biomass instead of the usual starch crops is known as Bioetha-nol. Ethanol is in a liquid...

Cornell university

CORNELL uNIVERSITY, AN Ivy League school and land-grant college located in the scenic Finger Lakes region of central New York, has seven small to midsized undergraduate colleges. The Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences offers undergraduate and graduate courses of study in the colleges of Arts and Sciences, Agriculture and Life Sciences, and Engineering. The Science of Earth Systems major is offered in all three colleges, while the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences also offers...

Lindzen Richard 1940

RICHARD SIEGMUND LINDZEN is the Alfred P. Sloan Professor of Meteorology in the Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), where he has taught since 1983. Though extremely accomplished and respected in his field, he is perhaps best-known in non-academic circles for his arguments against anthropogenic climate change, that is, human-influenced or induced climate change known as global warming. Lindzen was born in Webster,...

Gross Primary Production

Terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) is a collection of complex processes performed by photosynthetic organisms that result in the conversion of light energy and water into chemical energy and the subsequent biochemical fixation of carbon dioxide into sugars. Because the supply of organic carbon exerts a dominant control on the activity of heterotrophic organisms, from bacteria to ungulates, GPP is a central process regulating the structure and functioning of ecosystems. Further, during...

Validation of Climate Models

THE CLIMATIC SYSTEM is constituted by four intimately interconnected subsystems atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and biosphere which evolve under the action of macroscopic driving and modulating agents, such as solar heating, Earth's rotation, and gravitation. The climate system features many degrees of freedom, which make it complicated, and nonlinear interactions taking place on a vast range of time-space scales accompanying sensitive dependence on initial conditions, which makes it...

Arrhenius Svante August 18591927

SVANTE AUGUST ARRHENIUS is considered both a founder of physical chemistry for his work on ionic solutions and their electrolytic dissociation and the father of climate change science for his work on the contribution of carbon dioxide to global warming. Both theories were a great challenge to the scientific community of his time. Svante August Arrhenius was born on February 19, 1859, in Wijk, near Uppsala, Sweden, as the son of Svante Gustaf Arrhenius, a land surveyer at the University of...

Benguela Current

THE BENGUELA CURRENT is located in the southern part of the Atlantic Ocean and moves northward from the western coast of South Africa, Namibia, and Angola, merging into the Southern Equatorial Current. It takes its name from the Angolan port of Benguela, which was founded by the Portuguese in 1617. The current was quickly noticed by European seafarers, who initially had trouble navigating the region. While the Benguela Current is cold, generated by water from the very deepest parts of the ocean...

Arkansas

A geographically diverse state in the southern United States, Arkansas depends heavily upon lumber and wood products, agriculture, forestry, and tourism for its economic stability. All of these sectors are particularly vulnerable to the changes global warming can produce in the state's ecosystem. Arkansans have been slow to respond to threats to the state's environment, but, in recent years, both city and state governments have begun implementing strategies designed to address the problem. A...

Forest Carbon Storage

Forests exert a disproportionately large influence on the global carbon cycle. The Earth's forests store over 1,200 Pg of carbon (1 Pg petagram equals 1 x 1,015 g.), which is approximately half of all organic carbon in the terrestrial biosphere. More than 80 percent of this forest carbon resides in boreal and tropical forests, with the remainder in temperate forests. Terrestrial vegetation, especially in forests, interacts strongly with the atmosphere, with impacts on carbon dioxide...

Montreal Protocol

THE MONTREAL PROTOcOL is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of a number substance (such as CFCs Chlorofluoro compounds) believed to be responsible for ozone depletion. In the late 1920s, chemicals called chloroflourocarbons (cloro-floro-carbons) or CFCs, were invented. These chemicals were not poisonous and did not harm fabrics, plants, or people. Companies thought they were great products and used them in refrigerators, air conditioners,...

Sea Level Rise And Climate Change

Bangladesh is one of the countries most vulnerable to a rise in sea level. Estimates for future sea level rise vary from 3.2-43.3 in. (8-110 cm.) by the end of the century. A rise of 9.8 in. (25 cm.) or more in relative sea level would displace many residents of the delta region of the Ganges from their homes and livelihoods, while a 39 in. (1 m.) sea-level rise could inundate 11.5 percent of the land of Bangladesh. Extreme predictions of a 1 m. rise in the Bay of Bengal are that the Ganges...

Rainfall Patterns

Change iN RAiNFALL pattern is a consequence of global warming. The world's agriculture, especially third world agriculture, depends upon the seasonal rainfall pattern. Recent erratic changes in rainfall pattern lead toward low agriculture production, thus creating food insecurity for an ever-increasing world population. Flood, drought, and famine are the consequences of these changing patterns. Rainfall pattern means the distribution of rain geographically, temporally, and seasonally. The...

LAND usE Alteration

Alteration of landscape through the destruction of vegetation is thought to cause climate change, so the production of oil and the emissions from its eventual combustion are both concerns. The search for oil has literally covered the globe. Geologists and wildcatters have pursued the hunt for oil and natural gas on land and sea in all climates. There is an adage oil is where you find it, and the search for oil includes tropical rain forests and arctic tundra. These and other locations create...