Radiative Forcing and Climate Change

A perturbation to the atmospheric concentration of an important greenhouse gas, or the distribution of aerosols, induces a radiative forcing that can affect climate. Radiative forcing of the surface-troposphere system is defined as the change in net radiative flux at the tropopause due to a change in either solar or infrared radiation (IPCC, 1996a). Generally, this net flux is calculated after allowing for stratospheric temperatures to re-adjust to radiative equilibrium. A positive radiative...

Ussr

In the USSR, sustained interest in weather modification predated WWII. Beginning with the establishment of Leningrad's Institute of Rainmaking in 1932, work on cloud modification moved outside the laboratory, with airborne cloud seeding experiments using calcium chloride beginning as early as 1934 and continuing until 1939 (Zikeev and Doumani, 1967). Work resumed immediately after the war with tests of cloud seeding using dry ice (1947) and silver iodide (1949). In the 1950s and early 1960s...

Technological change as endogenous and interactive with patterns of

Energy efficiency is not technological opportunity limited by social, regulatory or political factors. This bold statement is designed to emphasize the point that technological change and energy efficiency are an integrated and endogenous aspect of the design and operation of economic activities. Future efficient technologies (and their successful commercialization) will be as much a consequence of energy prices, social attitudes about environmental issues and political energy priorities as of...

Usa

The 1946 discovery of cloud seeding by Schaefer and Langmuir (Schaefer, 1946) at the General Electric research labs ignited a commercial boom in weather modification.2 Within five years private cloud seeding ventures had total annual receipts of 3-5 million, and in 1951 had targeted an area equal to 14 of the landmass of the lower 48 states (ACWC57, see Table 10.1). The boom rapidly attracted government attention with the first court case involving 2 Contemporary documents, and more recent...

Overview of the LSP system

Figure 9.4 shows the general features of the LSP System. Pairs of power bases on opposite limbs of the moon convert dependable solar power to microwaves. The Earth stays in the same region of the sky as seen from a given power base on the moon. Thus, over the course of a lunar month, pairs of bases can continuously beam power toward collectors, called rectennas, on Earth (shown in the lower right of Figure 9.2). Rectennas are simply specialized types of centimeter-size TV antennas and electric...

Etymology and definition

In this review geoengineering is defined as intentional large-scale manipulation of the environment. Scale and intent play central roles in the definition. For an action to be geoengineering, the environmental change must be the primary goal rather than a side effect, and the intent and effect of the manipulation must be large in scale e.g., continental to global. Two examples serve to demonstrate the roles of scale and intent. First, intent without scale. Ornamental gardening is the...

Definitions of Special Terms

1 bbl one barrel of oil 42 US gallons 159 liters 1 billion 1 X 109 (also 1 giga 1 G) C carbon C temperature measured in degrees Celsius D duty cycle (fraction of a complete cycle in which action occurs) e electric (e.g. 1 We 1 Watt of electric power) EO Earth orbit, an orbit about the Earth Geo geosynchronous orbit about Earth (satellite stays fixed in sky directly above the equator of Earth) 1 GHz 1 X 109 cycle per second 1 GWs one gigawatt of solar energy in free space (above the atmosphere...

Transition Paths Toward Carbonless Energy

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed a network optimization model (Figure 6.1) to examine these three stages of integrating renewables into utilities (reliability, intermittent intensive electric systems, and carbonless transportation). By constructing and analyzing model scenarios of future electricity and transportation systems attempts we quantify the Figure 6.1 Schematic of a coupled utility electric generation and transportation system using nuclear, fossil, and...

Carbonless Energy Carriers

Electricity is the highest quality energy carrier, increasingly dominant throughout the world's energy infrastructure. Ultimately electricity use can expand to efficiently meet virtually all stationary energy applications, eliminating stationary end-use carbon emissions. This approach is unlikely to work in transportation, however, due to the high cost and low energy density of electricity storage. Chemical energy carriers, such as hydrogen, can more effectively serve transportation fuel and...

Twentyfirst Century Challenges People Power and Energy

At the end of the 20th century, the 0.9 billion people of the economically Developed Nations of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) used 6.8 kWt person of thermal power. The 5.1 billion people of the Developing Nations use 1.6 kWt person (Nakicenovic et al., 1998). If the large per capita use of power by former states of the Soviet Union is subtracted, the other non-OECD nations use less than 1 kWt person of commercial power (Criswell, 1998). The majority of people...

Background

7.2.1 How did we get here A brief history of nuclear energy Several descriptions of the history of nuclear energy clearly overlap the history of nuclear weapons (Goldschmidt, 1982). In Appendix A we show a chronology of important events related to the development of nuclear fission, starting with nuclear weaponry and proceeding to civilian nuclear energy. In addition, general books about nuclear energy discuss the history and the basic issues very clearly (Bodansky, 1997). An atomic nucleus of...