Heat transfer fluids

There are two methods for estimating emissions from the use of heat transfer fluids. The choice of methods will depend on the availability of activity data on the use of heat transfer fluids, and is outlined in the decision tree (see Figure 6.2, Decision Tree for Estimation of FC Emissions from Heat Transfer Fluids, and see Section 1.5 of Chapter 1, Choosing between the Mass-Balance and Emission-Factor Approach). Tier 1 is appropriate when company-specific data are not available on heat...

Annex 39A Feedstockproduct flow diagrams

Figure 3.11 Methanol production feedstock-product flow diagram Figure 3.11 Methanol production feedstock-product flow diagram Figure 3.12 Ethylene dichloride production feedstock-product flow diagram Ethylene Dichloride Purification Process Figure 3.13 Ethylene oxide production feedstock-product flow diagram Figure 3.14 Acrylonitrile production feedstock-product flow diagram Figure 3.14 Acrylonitrile production feedstock-product flow diagram Figure 3.15 Carbon black production feedstock-product...

Calculation steps for Tier 1

The following summarizes steps for estimating change in carbon stocks in biomass (ACB) using the default methods step 1 Estimate area converted to Forest Land (during the period 20 years before the year of the inventory) from other land-use categories such as Cropland, Grassland, and Settlements. Refer to Chapter 3 for detailed approaches for estimating Land Converted to Forest Land. step 2 Disaggregate the area converted to Forest Land according to intensively managed forest (through...

Uncertainty assessment

EMISSION FACTOR UNCERTAINTIES Emission Factors for Tiers 1 and 2 The major sources of uncertainty for a Tier 1 approach arise from two sources. These are The applicability of global emission factors to individual countries Inherent uncertainties in the emission factors themselves The uncertainty due to the first point above is difficult to quantify, but could be significant. The inherent uncertainty in the emission factor is also difficult to quantify because of natural variability within the...

Choice of method for PFCs

During electrolysis, alumina (Al2O3) is dissolved in a fluoride melt comprising about 80 weight percent cryolite (Na3AlF6). Perfluorocarbons (CF4 and C2F6 collectively referred to as PFCs) are formed from the reaction of the carbon anode with the cryolite melt during a process upset condition known as an 'anode effect'. An anode effect occurs when the concentration of alumina in the electrolyte is too low to support the standard anode reaction. An anode effect is a process upset condition where...

Landfill gas

Municipal solid waste contains significant portions of organic materials that produce a variety of gaseous products when deposited, compacted, and covered in landfills. Anaerobic bacteria thrive in the oxygen-free environment, resulting in the decomposition of the organic materials and the production of primarily carbon dioxide and methane. Carbon dioxide is likely to leach out of the landfill because it is soluble in water. Methane, on the other hand, which is less soluble in water and lighter...

Dead organic matter

In this section, changes in carbon stock in dead organic matter pools are discussed for the land-use category Land Converted to Forest Land. Cropland, Grassland, Settlements, and other land-use categories can be potentially converted to Forest Land through planting or natural regeneration. It is likely that most non-forest land will not have significant dead wood or litter carbon pools. Accordingly, the Tier 1 assumption is that carbon stocks in dead wood and litter pools in non-forest land are...

Emission factor uncertainties

Uncertainties for the default values shown in Table 3.1 are estimates based on data from EFMA (2000a p.21) and de Beer, Phylipsen and Bates (2001 p.21). In general, default emission factors for gaseous inputs and outputs have higher uncertainties than for solid or liquid inputs and outputs. Mass values for gaseous substances are influenced by temperature and pressure variations and gases are more easily lost through process leaks. It is good practice to obtain uncertainty estimates at the plant...

Choice of method

A decision tree is provided in Figure 11.4 to assist inventory compilers with selection of the appropriate tier. Tier 1 CO2 Emissions from additions of carbonate limes to soils can be estimated with Equation 11.12 Equation 11.12 Annual CO2 emissions from lime application C02-C Emission (MLlmestone EFLimestone ) + (MDolomlte EFDolomlte) CO2-C Emission annual C emissions from lime application, tonnes C yr-1 M annual amount of calcic limestone (CaCO3) or dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2), tonnes yr-1 EF...

Sf6 emissions from manufacturing of electrical components

Some electrical equipment components may contain 1 percent or less by weight of SF6 in the insulating medium of the product. These components include but are not limited to medium voltage cast resin instrument transformers and high voltage bushings. In medium voltage (up to 52 kV) cast resin instrument transformers, SF6 is used to fill up micro-cavities in the resin insulation to improve the dielectric quality and durability of the product. In High Voltage (above 52 kV) bushings, SF6 is used as...

Choice of activity data

The Tier 1 method requires data on national production of NH3. If national-level activity data are not available, information on production capacity can be used. It is good practice to multiply the total national production capacity by a capacity utilisation factor of 80 percent 10 percent (i.e., a range of 70-90 percent) if the inventory compiler can document that utilisation for a year was below capacity. The same capacity utilisation factor should be applied to each year of the time-series....

Choice of method metallurgical coke production

The IPCC Guidelines outline three tiers for calculating CO2 emissions and two tiers for calculating CH4 emissions from coke production. The choice of a good practice method for estimation of CO2 emissions depends on national circumstances as shown in the decision tree in Figure 4.6 Estimation of CO2 Emissions from Metallurgical Coke Production. For CH4 emissions, use the decision tree in Figure 4.8. Metallurgical coke is produced either at the iron and steel facility ('onsite') or at separate...

Modelbased Tier 3 inventories

Model-based inventories are developed using empirical, process-based or other types of advanced models. It is good practice to have independent measurements to confirm that the model is capable of estimating emissions and removals in the source categories of interest (Prisley and Mortimer, 2004). In general, seven steps are used to implement a Tier 3 model-based inventory (Figure 2.7). Step 1. Select develop a model for calculating the stock changes and or greenhouse gas emissions. A model...

Inventory Quality Assurance Quality Control QAQC

It is good practice to conduct quality control checks as outlined in Chapter 6 of Volume 1 (Quality Assurance Quality Control and Verification), Tier 1 General Inventory Level QC Procedures. It is good practice to conduct expert review of the emission estimates when using Tier 2 or 3 methods. Additional quality control checks as outlined in Tier 2 procedures in the same chapter and quality assurance procedures may also be applicable, particularly if higher tier methods are used to determine...

TIER 1 method

In Tier 1, inventory compilers may use default values for either of the following variables (1) the types of lime produced and or (2) the proportion of hydrated lime produced. Table 2.4, provides data on stoichiometric ratios, the ranges of CaO and CaO-MgO contents and the resulting default emission factors, for the main lime types produced. Where there are no disaggregated data for the breakdown of lime types, it is good practice to assume that 85 percent is high-calcium lime and 15 percent...

Science background

Land use and management influence a variety of ecosystem processes that affect greenhouse gas fluxes (Figure 1.1), such as photosynthesis, respiration, decomposition, nitrification denitrification, enteric fermentation, and combustion. These processes involve transformations of carbon and nitrogen that are driven by the biological (activity of microorganisms, plants, and animals) and physical processes (combustion, leaching, and run-off). historical fire suppression and past forest harvest...

Excluded Carbon

The next step is to exclude from the total carbon the amount of carbon which does not lead to fuel combustion emissions, because the aim is to provide an estimate of fuel combustion emissions (Source category 1A). 2 The difference between the net and the gross calorific value for each fuel is the latent heat of vaporisation of the water produced during combustion of the fuel. For the purposes of the IPCC Guidelines, the default carbon emission factors have been given on a net calorific value...

Uncertainty assessment Tier 1

Under Tier 1, the sources of uncertainty are the use of global or national averages for biomass carbon stocks in Forest Land or Other Land uses before conversion, and coarse estimates of areas converted to Other Land. Areas should be estimated using the methods outlined in Chapter 3. Carbon stocks will have the uncertainties associated with their estimation in the relevant section of the Guidelines. In the absence of other estimates, a default uncertainty level of +75 of the estimated mean CO2...

N2O emission factors

Nitrous oxide emissions from waste incineration are determined by a function of the type of technology and combustion conditions, the technology applied for NOx reduction as well as the contents of the waste stream. As a result, emission factors can vary from site to site. Several countries have reported N2O emissions from waste incineration in their national inventory reports. Table 5.4 shows examples of emission factors that have been used for incineration of MSW. The differences in the...

Methodological issues

Many kinds of glass articles and compositions are used commercially, but the glass industry can be divided into four main categories containers, flat (window) glass, fibre glass, and specialty glass. The great bulk of commercial glass is in the first two categories, and is almost entirely soda-lime glass, consisting of silica (SiO2), soda (Na2O), and lime (CaO), with small amounts of alumina (Al2O3), and other alkalies and alkaline earths, plus some minor ingredients. Insulation grade fibre...

Tier 3 approach

The Tier 1 and Tier 2 approaches of estimating emissions described in the previous sections necessitate using an average emission factor for a source category and fuel combination throughout the source category. In reality, emissions depend on the age of the equipment used to burn the fuel. In a Tier 3 approach this is taken into account by splitting the fuel combustion statistics over the different possibilities and using emission factors that are dependent upon these differences. In Equation...

Rice cultivation

Cai, Z.C., Tsuruta, H. and Minami, K. (2000). Methane emission from rice fields in China measurements and influencing factors. Journal of Geophysical Research 105(D13) 17231-17242. Cai, Z.C., Tsuruta, H., Gao, M., Xu, H. and Wei, C.F. (2003a). Options for mitigating methane emission from a permanently flooded rice field. Global Change Biology 9 37-45. Cai, Z.C., Sawamoto, T., Li, C.S., Kang, G.D., Boonjawat, J., Mosier, A. and Wassmann, R. (2003b). Field validation of the DNDC model for...

Choice of emission factors

Annual increase in carbon stocks in biomass, ACG The calculations distinguish between two broad management practices intensive (e.g., plantation forestry with site preparation, planting of selected species and fertilization) and extensive (natural regeneration with minimum human intervention). These categories can also be refined according to national circumstances, for example based on stand origin (e.g., natural or artificial regeneration, restocking, promotion of natural re-growth, etc.),...

Definition of industrial process and fuel combustion emissions

Allocating emissions from the use of fossil fuel between the Energy and IPPU Sectors can be complex. The feedstock and reductant uses of fuels frequently produce gases that may be combusted to provide energy for the process. Equally part of the feedstock may be combusted directly for heat. This can lead to uncertainty and ambiguity in reporting. To help to overcome this problem, these Guidelines introduce practical guidance on when to allocate CO2 emissions released from combustion of fuel to...

Estimation Methods

As with the 1996 Guidelines and IPCC Good Practice Guidance the most common simple methodological approach is to combine information on the extent to which a human activity takes place (called activity data or AD) with coefficients which quantify the emissions or removals per unit activity. These are called emission factors (EF). The basic equation is therefore For example, in the energy sector fuel consumption would constitute activity data, and mass of carbon dioxide emitted per unit of fuel...

Developing a consistent time series

It is good practice to determine fuel use using the same method for all years. If this is not possible, data collection should overlap sufficiently in order to check for consistency in the methods employed. Emissions of CH4 and N2O will depend on engine type and technology. Unless technology-specific emission factors have been developed, it is good practice to use the same fuel-specific set of emission factors for all years. Mitigation activities resulting in changes in overall fuel consumption...

Methane emissions from enteric fermentation

Methane is produced in herbivores as a by-product of enteric fermentation, a digestive process by which carbohydrates are broken down by micro-organisms into simple molecules for absorption into the bloodstream. The amount of methane that is released depends on the type of digestive tract, age, and weight of the animal, and the quality and quantity of the feed consumed. Ruminant livestock (e.g., cattle, sheep) are major sources of methane with moderate amounts produced from non-ruminant...

Methodological issues 3921 Choice of method

The emissions from petrochemical and carbon black production vary both with the process used and the feedstock used. The choice of method should thus be repeated for each product, process and feedstock used. Three methodological tiers are provided depending on the availability of data. The choice of method depends on national circumstances and is given by the decision trees in Figure 3.8 and Figure 3.9. Figure 3.8 Decision tree for estimation of CO2 emissions from petrochemical industry Figure...

Choice of stock change and emission factor

Default reference C stocks are found in Table 2.3 of Chapter 2, and stock change factors for previous land uses can be found in the relevant Chapters (for Forest Land in Section 4.2.3.2, Cropland in 5.2.3.2, Grassland in 6.2.3.2, and Other Land in 9.3.3.2). Default stock change factors for land use after conversion (Settlements) are not needed for the Tier 1 method for Settlements Remaining Settlements because the default assumption is that inputs equal outputs and therefore no net change in...

Foreword

Recognizing the problem of potential global climate change, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) co-established in 1988 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). One of the IPCC's activities is to support the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) through its work on methodologies for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. This report is the culmination of three years of work by the IPCC National Greenhouse Gas...

Flooded land surface area

National statistical information on the flooded area retained behind large dams (> 100km2) should be available and will probably be accurate to within 10 . Where national database on dams are not available, and other information is used, the flooded land areas retained behind dams will probably have an uncertainty of more than 50 , especially for countries with large flooded land areas. Detailed information on the location, type and function of smaller dams may be also difficult to obtain,...

CH4 Emissions from Flooded Land Basis for Future Methodological Development

This Appendix provides a basis for future methodological development rather than complete guidance. Flooded Land may emit CH4 in significant quantities, depending on a variety of characteristic such as age and depth of reservoirs, land-use prior to flooding, climate, and management practices. In contrast with CO2 emissions, CH4 emissions are highly variable spatially and temporally. Current measurements of CH4 fluxes from Flooded Land are not sufficiently comprehensive to support the...

A2 Land Converted to Flooded Land

With the actual knowledge, for Land Converted to Flooded Land, it is suggested to use measured emissions in Table 3a.2. Inventory compilers should use Tier 1, Tier 2, and Tier 3 methods described in Section 3a. 1 to estimate CH4 emissions from Land Converted to Flooded Land. Abril, G., Gu rin, F., Richard, S., Delmas, R., Galy-Lacaux, C., Gosse, P., Tremblay, A., Varfalvy, L., dos Santos, M.A. and Matvienko, B. (2005). Carbon dioxide and methane emissions and the carbon budget of a 10-years old...

Non Methane Volatile Organic Compounds NMVOCs

A class of emissions which includes a wide range of specific organic chemical substances. Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOCs) play a major role in the formation of ozone in the troposphere (lower atmosphere). Ozone in the troposphere is a greenhouse gas. It is also a major local and regional air pollutant, causing significant health and environmental damage. Because they contribute to ozone formation, NMVOCs are considered precursor greenhouse gases. NMVOCs, once oxidized in the...

Intermediate storage facilities on CO2 transport routes

If there is a temporal mismatch between supply and transport or storage capacity, a CO2 buffer (above ground or underground) might be needed to temporarily store the CO2. If the buffer is a tank, fugitive emissions should be measured and treated as part of the transport system and reported under category 1C1 c (other). If the intermediate storage facility (or buffer) is a geological storage reservoir, fugitive emissions from it can be treated in the same way as for any other geological storage...

Annex 2A1 Waste Generation and Management Data by country and regional averages

Table 2A.1 in this Annex shows MSW generation and management data for some countries whose data are available. Regional defaults for waste generation and treatment that are provided in Table 2.1 in Chapter 2 are derived based on the information from this table. The data are applicable as default data for the year 2000. For comparison, data on waste generation and disposal to SWDS from the Revised 1996IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (1996 IPCC Guidelines) are also given...

Figures

Figure 4.1.1 Decision tree for underground coal Figure 4.1.2 Decision tree for surface coal Figure 4.1.3 Decision tree for abandoned underground coal Figure 4.2.1 Decision tree for natural gas Figure 4.2.2 Decision tree for crude oil Figure 4.2.3 Decision tree for crude oil transport, refining and Table 4.1.1 Detailed sector split for emissions from mining, processing, storage and transport of Table 4.1.2 Estimates of uncertainty for underground mining for Tier 1 and Tier 2 Table 4.1.3...

Time series consistency

Many countries have long time series of energy statistics that can be used to derive time series of energy sector greenhouse gas emissions. However, in many cases statistical practices (including definitions of fuels, of fuel use by sectors) will have changed over time and recalculations of the energy data in the latest set of definitions is not always feasible. In compiling time series of emissions from fuel combustion, these changes might give rise to time series inconsistencies, which should...

SF6 emissions from industrial and medical particle

SF6 is used as an insulating gas in two types of industrial particle accelerators (low and high voltage) and also in medical (cancer therapy) particle accelerators, as is the case for university and research particle accelerators. However, the emission and charge factors for industrial and medical particle accelerators are different from those of university and research accelerators, as discussed below. Global banked capacity for industrial particle accelerators is roughly estimated to be 500...

Coverage Of The Guidelines

Table 1 shows the contents of the five volumes that make up the 2006IPCC Guidelines. Estimation methods are provided for the gases shown in Tables 2 and 3, and cover the categories shown in Figure 1. Reporting is described in Chapter 8 of Volume 1. Coverage is complete for all greenhouse gases not covered by the Montreal Protocol, for which the IPCC, at the time of writing, provided a global warming potential (GWP)7. Table 1 shows the contents of the five volumes that make up the 2006IPCC...

Tiers

The Tier 1 method is fuel-based, since emissions from all sources of combustion can be estimated on the basis of the quantities of fuel combusted (usually from national energy statistics) and average emission factors. Tier 1 emission factors are available for all relevant direct greenhouse gases. The quality of these emission factors differs between gases. For CO2, emission factors mainly depend upon the carbon content of the fuel. Combustion conditions (combustion efficiency, carbon retained...

Use of worksheets

Use the worksheets for Livestock N2O contained in Annex 1 (AFOLU Worksheets) to calculate and report inventory information for default methodologies described in Section 10.5 N2O emission from manure management. The following is a summary of the step-by-step instructions to follow when completing the worksheets. Note that columns are referred to using the symbols of the variables that both appear in the equations, as well as in column headings of the worksheets. Step 1 Calculation of N...

Choice of emission factors for PFCs

Tier 1 Technology based default emission factors Default emission factors for Tier 1 method are provided in Table 4.15. Default emission factors and uncertainty ranges for the calculation of PFC emissions from ALUMINIUM PRODUCTION BY CELL TECHNOLOGY TYPE (TIER 1 METHOD) a Default CF4 values calculated from median anode effect performance from 1990 IAI survey data (IAI, 2001). b Uncertainty based on the range of calculated CF4 specific emissions by technology from 1990 IAI anode effect survey...

Equations For Harvested Wood Products

Estimation of carbon stock and its annual change in HWP pools of the reporting Starting with i 1900 and continuing to present year, compute Inflow(i) with C(1900) 0.0 Note For an explanation of technique used in Equations 12.1A to estimate first-order decay see Pingoud and Wagner (2006). C(i) the carbon stock of the HWP pool in the beginning of year i, Gg C k decay constant of first-order decay given in units, yr-1 ( k ln(2) HL, where HL is half-life of the HWP pool in years. A half-life is the...

Amount of waste openburned

The amount of waste open-burned is the most important activity data required for estimating emissions from open burning of waste. In most countries statistics may not be available. Where the data on waste amount are not available, alternative methods such as data from period surveys, research project or expert judgement can be used to estimate total amount of waste burned together with appropriate explanation and documentation. Extrapolation and interpolation can be used to obtain estimates for...

Introduction

The petrochemical industry uses fossil fuels (e.g., natural gas) or petroleum refinery products (e.g., naphtha) as feedstocks. This section provides guidance for estimating emissions from the production of methanol, ethylene and propylene2, ethylene dichloride, ethylene oxide, and acrylonitrile. These petrochemicals are addressed in detail because their global production volume and associated greenhouse gas emissions are relatively large. However, the chemicals included are not intended to...

Table A Summary Table 6 of

Other halogenated gases with CO2 equivalent conversion factors (3) Other halogenated gases without CO2 equivalent conversion factors (4) 4B Biological Treatment of Solid Waste 4C Incineration and Open Burning of Waste 4D Wastewater Treatment and Discharge Atmospheric Deposition of Nitrogen in NOX and NH3 International Aviation (International Bunkers) International Water-borne Transport (International Bunkers) (1) CO2 net emissions (emissions minus removals) (2) Total amount of CO2 captured for...

Etching and CVD cleaning for semiconductors

LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAYS, AND PHOTOVOLTAICS The default emission factors for the Tier 1 method is presented in Table 6.2 below. In using Tier 1, it is not good practice to modify, in any way, the set of the FCs or the values of the emission factors assumed in Table 6.2. Inventory compilers should not combine emissions estimated using Tier 1 method with emissions estimated using the Tier 2 or 3 methods. For example, inventory compilers may not use the Tier 1 factor for CF4 to estimate the...

Monte Carlo method

In these guidelines a Monte Carlo method is recommended to analyse the uncertainty of the inventory. The principle of Monte Carlo analysis is to perform the inventory calculation many times by computer, each time with the uncertain emission factors or model parameters and activity data chosen randomly (by the computer) within the distribution on uncertainties specified initially by the user. Uncertainties in emission factors and or activity data are often large and may not have normal...

Choice of emission and scaling factors

A baseline emission factor for no flooded fields for less than 180 days prior to rice cultivation and continuously flooded during the rice cultivation period without organic amendments (EFc) is used as a starting point. The IPCC default for EFc is 1.30 kg CH4 ha-1 day-1 (with error range of 0.80 - 2.20, Table 5.11), estimated by a statistical analysis of available field measurement data (Yan et al, 2005, the data set used in the analysis is available at a web site5). Scaling factors are used to...

Annex 3A1 First Order Decay Model

The first order decay (FOD) model introduced in Chapter 3 is the default method for calculating methane (CH4) emissions from solid waste disposal sites (SWDS). This Annex provides the supplementary information on this model mathematical basis for the FOD model (see Section 3A1.2), key issues in the model, such as the estimation of the mass of degradable organic carbon available for anaerobic decomposition at SWDS (DDOCm) (Section 3A1.2) and the delay time from disposal of waste in the SWDS till...

A24 Tools for data collection

Remotely sensed data, as discussed here, are those acquired by sensors (optical, radar or lidar) onboard satellites, or by cameras equipped with optical or infrared films, installed in aircraft. These data are usually classified to provide estimates of the land cover and its corresponding area, and usually require ground survey data to provide an estimate of the classification accuracy. Classification can be done either by visual analysis of the imagery or photographs, or by digital...

Roles And Responsibilities

The inventory compiler should be responsible for coordinating the institutional and procedural arrangements for inventory activities. It is good practice for the inventory compiler to define specific responsibilities and procedures for the planning, preparation, and management of inventory activities, including Selection of methods, emission factors, activity data and other estimation parameters Estimation of emissions or removals QA QC and verification activities Documentation and archiving....

Avoiding double counting activity data with

The use of fuel combustion statistics rather than fuel delivery statistics is key to avoid double counting in emission estimates. Fuel combustion data, however, are very seldom complete, since it is not practical to measure the fuel consumption or emissions of every residential or commercial source. Hence, national inventories using this approach will generally contain a mixture of combustion data for larger sources and delivery data for other sources. The inventory compiler must take care to...

Table S Afolu Sectoral Table 2 of

3B4aii Flooded Land Remaining Flooded Land 3B4bi Land Converted for Peat Extraction 3B4bii Land Converted to Flooded Land 3B4biii Land Converted to Other Wetlands 3B5a Settlements Remaining Settlements 3B5bi Forest Land Converted to Settlements 3B5bii Cropland Converted to Settlements 3B5biii Grassland Converted to Settlements 3B5biv Wetlands Converted to Settlements 3B5bv Other Land Converted to Settlements 3B6a Other Land Remaining Other Land 3B6bi Forest Land Converted to Other Land 3B6bii...

Worksheets

The four pages of the worksheets (Annex 1 of this Volume) for the Tier I Sectoral Approach should be filled in for each of the source categories indicated in Table 2.16. Only the amount of fuel combusted for energy purposes should be included in column A of the worksheets. When filling in column A of the worksheets, the following issues should be taken into account 1) some fuels are used for purposes other than for combustion, 2) waste-derived fuels are sometimes burned for energy purposes, and...

Military aviation

Military activity is defined here as those activities using fuel purchased by or supplied to the military authorities of the country. Emissions from aviation fuel use can be estimated using equation 3.6.1 and the same calculations approach recommended for civilian aviation. Some types of military transport aircraft and helicopters have fuel and emissions characteristics similar to civil types. Therefore default emission factors for civil aircraft should be used for military aviation unless...

Apparent consumption

The first step of the Reference Approach is to estimate apparent consumption of fuels within the country. This requires a supply balance of primary and secondary fuels (fuels produced, imported, exported, used in international transport (bunker fuels) and stored or removed from stocks). In this way carbon is brought into the country from energy production and imports (adjusted for stock changes) and moved out of the country through exports and international bunkers. In order to avoid double...

Coal mining and handling

The geological processes of coal formation also produce methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2) may also be present in some coal seams. These are known collectively as seam gas, and remain trapped in the coal seam until the coal is exposed and broken during mining. CH4 is the major greenhouse gas emitted from coal mining and handling. The major stages for the emission of greenhouse gases for both underground and surface coal mines are Mining emissions - These emissions result from the...

Methane

When peatlands are drained in preparation for peat extraction, the natural production of CH4 is largely reduced, but not entirely shut down (Strack et al, 2004), as the methanogen bacteria thrive only in anaerobic conditions. Under Tier 1, methane emissions are assumed to be insignificant in these drained peatlands. At higher tiers, countries are encouraged to examine the pattern of CH4 emissions from topographic lows and drainage ditches, which can contribute a significant proportion of the...

Methodological issues 4521 Choice of method

CO2 EMISSIONS FROM PRIMARY PRODUCTION The choice of a good practice method for inventory preparation of carbon dioxide emissions from the primary magnesium (raw material) production segment will depend on national circumstances. The decision tree (see Figure 4.13, Decision Tree for Estimation of CO2 Emissions from Primary Magnesium Production) describes good practice in adapting the methods to these country-specific circumstances. The Tier 1 method relies on national primary production data and...

Summary of sources

The major sources are summarised in Table 4.1.1 below. Detailed sector split for emissions from mining, processing, storage and transport of coal Includes all intentional and unintentional emissions from the extraction, processing, storage and transport of fuel to the point of final use. Includes all intentional and unintentional emissions from the extraction, processing, storage and transport of solid fuel to the point of final use. Includes all fugitive emissions from coal Includes all...

Accounting for feedstock and reductant uses of fossil fuels and their CO2 emissions

Ideally the estimation of emissions from the uses of fuels as feedstocks and reductants would proceed from knowledge of the specific plant data relevant for the processes considered. However, it is rare that all necessary data are available and for some, at least, of the estimations national data on the non-energy use of fuels may be needed. To identify the appropriate data for the estimation of CO2 emissions from processes using fuel hydrocarbons as feedstock or as reductant, it is necessary...

Methodological issues 8321 Choice of method

The good practice method is to use either consumption data from users of SF6 or PFCs or top-down import, export and consumption data from national SF6 producers and distributors, disaggregated by major type of SF6 or PFC application. Acquiring this data will entail a survey of all producers and distributors of SF6 and PFCs to identify total net SF6 and PFC consumption. Once the data are obtained, the amount of SF6 and PFC consumed by application in this source category should be estimated. SF6...

Activity data

In the Energy sector, the activity data are typically the amounts of fuels combusted. Such data are sufficient to perform a Tier 1 analysis. In higher Tier approaches additional data are required on fuel characteristics and the combustion technologies applied. In order to ensure transparency and comparability, a consistent classification scheme for fuel types need to be used. This section provides 1. definitions of the different fuels 2. the units in which to express the activity data 3....

Annex 3A5 Default climate and soil classifications

Climate regions are classified in order to apply emission and stock change factors for estimating biomass, dead organic matter and soil C stock changes. The default climate classification is provided in Figure 3A.5.1 and can be derived using the classification scheme in Figure 3A.5.2. This classification should be used for Tier 1 methods because the default emission and stock change factors were derived using this scheme. Note that climate regions are further subdivided into ecological zones to...

Flarei TFGhk NCVk EFk k

FGi k amount of gas k flared during production of petrochemical i, tonnes NCVk net calorific value of flared gas k, TJ tonne (Note In Table 1.2 in Chapter 1 of Volume 2, net calorific values are expressed in TJ kg) EFk CO2 emission factor of flared gas k, tonnes CO2 TJ (Note In Table 1.4 in Chapter 1 of Volume 2, CO2 emission factors are expressed in kg TJ) Specific carbon content of petrochemical feedstocks and products Carbon (tonne carbon per tonne feedstock or product) Note Carbon content...

Reporting and Documentation

It is good practice to document and archive all information required to produce the national emissions inventory estimates as outlined in Volume 1, Section 6.11. It is not practical to include all documentation in the national inventory report. However, the inventory should include summaries of methods used and references to source data such that the reported emissions estimates are transparent and steps in their calculation may be retraced. To improve transparency, it is good practice to...

Activity data QC

The estimation methods for many categories rely on the use of activity data and associated input variables that are not directly prepared by the inventory compiler. Activity data at a national level are normally drawn from secondary data sources or site-specific data prepared by site or plant personnel from their own measurements. Inventory compilers should take into account the practical considerations discussed in Section 6.2 when determining the level of QC activities to undertake. 6.7.2.1...

Nonco2 Emissions

There are significant emissions of non-greenhouse gases from biomass burning, livestock and manure management, or soils. N2O emissions from soils are covered in Chapter 11, where guidance is given on methods that can be applied nationally (i.e., irrespective of land-use types) if a country chooses to use national scale activity data. The guidance on CH4 and N2O emissions from livestock and manure are addressed only in Chapter 10 because emissions do not depend on land characteristics. A generic...

CH4 emission factors

CH4 emissions from waste incineration are much dependent on the continuity of the incineration process, the incineration technology, and management practices. The most detailed observations have been made in Japan (GIO, 2004), where the following CH4 emission factors based on technology and operation mode are obtained. Continuous incineration includes incinerators without daily start-up and shutdown. Batch type and semi-continuous incineration mean that the incinerator is usually started-up and...

Methodology for calculation of the contribution to uncertainty

The methodology for calculation of contribution to uncertainty is based upon apportioning the variance of the inventory to the variance of each category. If the uncertainty is symmetric, then the variance is estimated, on a category basis, as Contribution of category X - variance for symmetric uncertainty Ux uncertainty half-range for category x, in units of percent Dx the total emissions or removals for category x, corresponding to the entries in Column D of Table 3.5. cx2 the variance of...

Choice of method decision trees tiers

Methodical Choice Tree Tier Ipcc

There are three methodological tiers for determining fugitive emissions from oil and natural gas systems, as set out in Section 4.2.2.2. It is good practice to disaggregate the activities into Major Categories and Subcategories in the Oil and Gas Industry (see Table 4.2.2 in Section 4.2.2.2), and then evaluate the emissions separately for each of these. The methodological tier applied to each segment should be commensurate with the amount of emissions and the available resources. Consequently,...

Definitions of specialist terms

Aviation Gasoline - A fuel used only in small piston engine aircraft, and which generally represents less than 1 of fuel used in aviation Climb - The part of a flight of an aircraft, after take off and above 914 meters (3000 feet) above ground level, consisting of getting an aircraft to the desired cruising altitude. Commercial scheduled - All commercial aircraft operations that have publicly available schedules (e.g., the Official Airline Guide, OAG 2006), which would primarily include...

Choice of method for CO2 emissions from primary

During normal operations, aluminium is produced at the cathode and carbon is consumed at the anode per the electrolytic reduction reaction Most carbon dioxide emissions result from the electrolysis reaction of the carbon anode with alumina (Al2O3). The consumption of prebaked carbon anodes and Soderberg paste is the principal source of process related carbon dioxide emissions from primary aluminium production. Other sources of process related carbon dioxide emissions associated with Prebake...

Choice of method iron and steel production

These Guidelines outline three tiers for calculating CO2 emissions and two tiers for calculating CH4 emissions from iron and steel production. The choice of a good practice method depends on national circumstances as shown in the decision tree in Figure 4.7 for CO2 emissions and Figure 4.8 for CH4 emissions Decision Tree for Estimation of CO2 Emissions from Iron & Steel Production and Decision Tree for Estimating of CH4 Emissions from Iron and Steel Production. The Tier 1 method is based on...

Causes of uncertainty

Inventory estimates of emissions and removals differ from the true underlying value for many reasons. Some causes of uncertainty (e.g., sampling error or limitations on instrument accuracy) may generate well-defined, easily characterised estimates of the range of potential uncertainty. Other causes of uncertainty (e.g., biases) may be much more difficult to identify and quantify (Rypdal and Winiwarter, 2001). It is good practice to account, as far as possible, for all causes of uncertainties in...

Additional Equations for Biomass in Settlements

Annual carbon change in live biomass pools in settlements remaining settlements ACb annual carbon accumulation attributed to biomass increment in Settlements Remaining Settlements, tonnes C yr-1 ACTrees annual carbon accumulation attributed to biomass increment in trees in Settlements Remaining Settlements, tonnes C yr-1 ACShrubs annual carbon accumulation attributed to biomass increment in shrubs in Settlements Remaining Settlements, tonnes C yr-1 ACHerbs annual carbon accumulation attributed...

CO2 transport by pipeline

To estimate emissions from pipeline transport of CO2, default emission factors can be derived from the emission factors for transmission (pipeline transport) of natural gas as provided in section 4.2 of this volume. The Tier 1 emission factors for natural gas pipeline transport, presented in, Tables 4.2.4 and 4.2.5 are provided on the basis of gas throughput primarily because pipeline length is not a national statistic that is commonly available. However, fugitive emissions from pipeline...

Calculation steps for Tier

The following summarizes steps for estimating change in carbon stocks in biomass (ACB) using the default methods step 1 Using guidance from Chapter 3 (approaches in representing land areas), categorise the area (A) of Forest Land Remaining Forest Land into forest types of different climatic or ecological zones, as adopted by the country. As a point of reference, Annex 3A.1 of GPG-LULUCF (IPCC, 2003) provides national-level data of forest area and annual change in forest area by region and by...

Energy

For most countries, road transportation will be a major source of NOx, CO, and NMVOC emissions. Public electricity and heat production will likely be the major source of SO2 emissions in countries where coal is used extensively, and also an important source of NOx emissions. Industrial combustion will also be a source of SO2, NOx and CO emissions and residential combustion a source of CO emissions. Oil production will likely be a source of NMVOC, NOx, and, CO emissions in countries that produce...

Equations For Wetlands

Equation 7.1 CO2 EMISSIONS FROM WETLANDS CO2_W CO2 emissions from Wetlands, Gg CO2 yr-1 CO2_Wpeat CO2 emissions from peatlands managed for peat production, Gg CO2 yr-1 CO2_Wflood CO2 emissions from (lands converted to) Flooded Land, Gg CO2 yr-1 CO2 EMISSIONS IN PEATLANDS DURING PEAT EXTRACTION C 2WWrell (C 2 CwWpeat0jf-site + n-stte ' CO2 WWpeat CO2 emissions from land undergoing peat extraction, Gg CO2 yr-1 CO2-CWW peatoff site off-site CO2-C emissions from peat removed for horticultural use,...

Production and use of asphalt for road paving

Asphalt paving consist of a mix of aggregate, sand, filler, bitumen and occasionally a number of additives. Asphalt road surfaces are, thus, composed of compacted aggregate and bitumen binder. Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) is by far the most widely used, generally over 80 percent, and produces very few emissions (EAPA, 2003). Other types of road paving include cutback asphalt and emulsified asphalt, which are both liquefied asphalts (EEA, 2005). Cutback asphalts are liquefied by blending with petroleum...

Equations For Soil Carbon

ACSoils annual change in carbon stocks in soils, tonnes C yr-1 ACMineral annual change in organic carbon stocks in mineral soils, tonnes C yr-1 LOrganic annual loss of carbon from drained organic soils, tonnes C yr-1 ACInorganic annual change in inorganic carbon stocks from soils, tonnes C yr-1 (assumed to be 0 unless using a Tier 3 approach) Annual change in organic carbon stocks in mineral soils SOC SOCREFCst FLUCsi * FMGCr i FIC Ac,s,i ) c, s,i (Note T is used in place of D in this equation...

Peatlands Remaining Peatlands

This section covers emissions from peatlands undergoing active peat extraction. Use of peat is widely distributed about half is used for energy the remainder for horticultural, landscape, industrial waster water treatment, and other purposes (International Peat Society, 2004). Techniques for extracting the peat from deposits are similar, and all on-site sources of greenhouse gas emissions should be reported under this category regardless of the end-use of peat. Emissions from the off-site...

Outflow Spillway volume

Under Level 3, flooded land outflow and spillway volume are required to estimate degassing emissions of CO2. CO2 concentrations upstream and downstream of dams Under Level 3, CO2 concentrations upstream and downstream of dams would be needed for estimation of the degassing emissions. Information on measurement techniques can be obtained from the references cited in Box 2a.1. CO2 MEASURED EMISSIONS FOR FLOODED LAND Diffusive emissions (ice-free period) EKCO2W (kg CO2 ha-1 day-1) Bergstr m et...

Equations For Livestock

AAP annual average population NAPA number of animals produced annually Coefficient for calculating net energy for maintenance Cfi (in _ cold) Cfi + 0.0048 (20 - C) Cfi a coefficient which varies for each animal category as shown in Table 10.4 (Coefficients for calculating NEm), MJ day-1 kg-1 C mean daily temperature during winter season net energy required by the animal for maintenance, MJ day- Cfi a coefficient which varies for each animal category as shown in Table 10.4 (Coefficients for...

QAQC Completeness Reporting and Documentation

This method makes use of several default parameters. It is recommended to solicit experts' advice in evaluating the appropriateness of the proposed default factors. Unless sludge removal data are available, the methodology for estimating emissions from effluent is based on population and on the assumption that all nitrogen associated with consumption and domestic use, as well as nitrogen from co-discharged industrial wastewater, will eventually enter a waterway. As such, this estimate can be...

Industrial wastewater

Industrial wastewater may be treated on site or released into domestic sewer systems. If it is released into the domestic sewer system, the emissions are to be included with the domestic wastewater emissions. This section deals with estimating CH4 emissions from on-site industrial wastewater treatment. Only industrial wastewater with significant carbon loading that is treated under intended or unintended anaerobic conditions will produce CH4. Organics in industrial wastewater are often...

Change in biomass carbon stocks aboveground biomass and belowground biomass

Plant biomass constitutes a significant carbon stock in many ecosystems. Biomass is present in both above-ground and below-ground parts of annual and perennial plants. Biomass associated with annual and perennial herbaceous (i.e., non-woody) plants is relatively ephemeral, i.e., it decays and regenerates annually or every few years. So emissions from decay are balanced by removals due to re-growth making overall net C stocks in biomass rather stable in the long term. Thus, the methods focus on...

Conversion of energy units

In energy statistics and other energy data compilations, production and consumption of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels are specified in physical units, e.g. in tonnes or cubic metres. To convert these data to common energy units, eg joules, requires calorific values. To convert tonnes to energy units, in this case terajoules, requires calorific values. These Guidelines use net calorific values (NCVs), expressed in SI units or multiples of SI units (for example TJ Mg). Some statistical offices...

Land Being Converted for Peat Extraction

CO2 -C EMISSIONS IN PEATLAND BEING DRAINED FOR PEAT EXTRACTION 2 -CLWpeat on-sie ACWW j + ACWW j + CO2 - LWpeat _ drain CO2-CLWpeat_on-site CO2-C emissions from land being converted for peat extraction, Gg C yr-ACwwpeat b CO2-C emissions from change in carbon stocks in living biomass, Gg C yr-1 ACWWpeatDOM CO2-C emissions from change in carbon stocks in dead organic matter pool, Gg C yr CO2-CLWpeat drainage CO2-C emissions from soils during drainage, Gg C yr-1 None of the procedures for...

CO2 emission factors

It is generally more practical to estimate CO2 emissions from incineration and open burning of waste using calculations based on the carbon content in the waste, instead of measuring the CO2 concentration. Default values for parameters related to emission factors are shown in Table 5.2. Each of these factors is discussed in detail in the sections below3. Default data for CO2 emission factors for incineration and open burning of waste Dry matter content in of wet weight Total carbon content in...

Equations For Biomass

Equation 2.7 Annual change in carbon stocks in biomass in land remaining in a particular land use -category (Gain-Loss Method) AC annual change in carbon stocks in biomass (the sum of above-ground and below-ground biomass terms in Equation 2.3) for each land sub-category, considering the total area, tonnes C yr-1 ACq annual increase in carbon stocks due to biomass growth for each land sub-category, considering the total area, tonnes C yr-1 ACl annual decrease in carbon stocks due to biomass...

A3 Good Practice Guidance for Land Use Land Use Change and Forestry Gpglulucf

GPG-LULUCF (IPCC, 2003) elaborated on the 1996 IPCC Guidelines to adopt an approach based on land-use categories for organizing the methodologies and good practices associated with estimating emissions and removals in the Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) Sector, including Forest Land, Cropland, Grassland, Wetlands, Settlements and Other Land. Each land category was further sub-divided into land remaining in the same category (e.g., Forest Land Remaining Forest Land) or land...

Electronics Industry Emissions 61 Introduction

Several advanced electronics manufacturing processes utilise fluorinated compounds (FCs) for plasma etching intricate patterns, cleaning reactor chambers, and temperature control. The specific electronic industry sectors discussed in this chapter include semiconductor, thin-film-transistor flat panel display (TFT-FPD), and photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing (collectively termed 'electronics industry').1 The electronics industry currently emits both FCs that are gases at room temperature and FCs...

Equations For N2o And Other Co2 Emissions From Managed Soils

Direct N2O emissions from managed soils (Tier 1) SN + F0N + FCR + FS0M )FR EF FR J annual direct N2O-N emissions produced from managed soils, kg N2O-N yr- annual direct N2O-N emissions from N inputs to managed soils, kg N2O-N yr-1 annual direct N2O-N emissions from managed organic soils, kg N2O-N yr-1 annual direct N2O-N emissions from urine and dung inputs to grazed soils, kg Fsn annual amount of synthetic fertiliser N applied to soils, kg N yr1 Fon annual amount of animal manure, compost,...

Equations

Equation 11.1 Direct N2O emissions from managed soils (Tier Equation 11.2 Direct N2O emissions from managed soils (Tier Equation 11.3 N from organic N additions applied to soils (Tier Equation 11.4 N from animal manure applied to soils (Tier Equation 11.5 N in urine and dung deposited by grazing animals on pasture, range and paddock (Tier Equation 11.6 N from crop residues and forage pasture renewal (Tier Equation 11.7 Dry-weight correction of reported crop Equation 11.7A Alternative approach...

Strengths and weaknesses of the emissionfactor approach

The emission-factor approach equates emissions to the product of an emission factor and either (1) the nameplate capacity of the equipment that uses or holds a chemical, or (2) the bank of a chemical. (These quantities are similar but not necessarily identical.) Fortunately, where the mass-balance approach is likely to be inaccurate, the emission-factor approach can be used. However, the robustness and reliability of an emission- 8 The maximum, long-term accuracy of the mass-balance approach...

Indirect N2O emissions

In addition to the direct emissions of N2O from managed soils that occur through a direct pathway (i.e., directly from the soils to which N is applied), emissions of N2O also take place through two indirect pathways (as illustrated above in Section 11.2). The first of these pathways is the volatilisation of N as NH3 and oxides of N (NOx), and the deposition of these gases and their products NH4+ and NO3- onto soils and the surface of lakes and other waters. The sources of N as NH3 and NOx are...