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Synoptic maps at 850 hPa analyzed using ECMWF gridded data every 6h from (a) 1200 UTC 7 to (d) 0600 UTC 8 June 1998. Geopotential heights (gpm, contour) are analyzed at 10 gpm intervals. Full and half barbs represent 5 and 2.5ms1, respectively, and areas with wind speed > 10 ms1 are shaded (gray scale shown at lower right corner). Heavy solid (dotted) lines indicate a Meiyu front as defined by the maximum 0e gradient (relative vorticity), and asterisks ( ) mark the location of...

Ch3ooh ch2o hcooh ch3cooh so2

SO4 and CRESOL are assumed to be 5 days (Logan et al., 1981). Results of the layer of 16 m height, at which most surface measurements were made, are used to make a comparison with measurements at surface stations and the OBM results. The emission rates of O3 precursors are based on the Taiwan Emission Data System (TEDS 5.0, 2000) published by the TEPA (http www.aqmc.org.tw). Area and line sources in the KaoPing area are averaged to obtain the average emission rates. The emission rates of NOx,...

Representation of Convective Radiative Processes in Climate Models

The research results discussed in this review represent a one-way interaction approach for process models to study the physical processes interacting with climate oscillations. The acquired knowledge forms a basis for improving the representation of these physical processes in climate models, and also motivates the next-step approach to examining the radiative-convective (two-way) interaction with climate dynamics in large-scale models. Indeed, since the original attempt by Sundqvist (1978) to...

E Advq 1000200 hPa diff

Termed the interactive Rodwell-Hoskin (IRH) mechanism, while the advection associated with the cross-continental winds is termed ventilation. Thus, the local effects of evaporation and Fnet initiate the convection and the effects of ventilation, and the IRH mechanism modifies the summer monsoon rainfall pattern. In this study, we first analyzed the local effects, including evaporation and the dynamical feedback of Fnet. The evaporation over land is associated with soil moisture. Soil moisture...

Precipitation efficiency

Precipitation efficiency is an important physical parameter for measuring the interaction between convection and its environment (Doswell et al., 1996 Ferrier et al., 1996 Tao et al., 2004). Its definition may vary. For large-scale applications involving cumulus parametrization (e.g. Kuo, 1965, 1974), the precipitation efficiency is defined as the ratio of the surface rain rate to the sum of the surface evaporation and vertically integrated moisture convergence, and is referred to as...

Outbreaks of Asian Dust Storms An Overview from Satellite and Surface Perspectives

Laboratory for Atmospheres, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, USA Taiwan, located downwind of dust storm outbreaks from China, in the sink region of biomass-burning aerosols from Southeast Asia, and at the outflow of urban-industrial pollutants from the Pearl and Yangtze River Delta, is exposed to a seasonal milieu of natural and anthropogenic aerosols in the atmosphere. In the springtime, outbreaks of Asian dust storms occur frequently in the arid and semiarid areas of...

Conclusions and Discussion

This study has revealed the strong ISO-TC in-phase relationship in the tropical western North Pacific during JJASO 2004. The repeated appearance of the ISO during JJASO resulted in the fluctuation of the EA monsoon trough and the Pacific anticyclone, which in turn modulated the TC activity and led to the spatial and temporal clustering of TCs. While TCs occurred in groups during the cyclonic phase of the ISO, the clustering of these strong TC vortices significantly increased the overall...

Diurnal variation of tropical oceanic convection

The diurnal variation of tropical oceanic convection is one of most important phenomena in tropical variability, and plays a crucial role in regulating tropical hydrological and energy cycles. The dominant diurnal signal is the nocturnal peak in precipitation that occurs in the early morning (see the review in Sui et al., 1997a). Kraus (1963) emphasized the role of radiative forcing in the diurnal variation, and suggested that solar heating and IR cooling tend to suppress convection during...

Linear Instability

It is instructive to first examine the dynamical properties of weak perturbations in this system. They are governed by the linearized version of (6.2), viz. Zt + J( ref, Z) + JW, Cref + f) aC (4) The absolute vorticity and stream function fields of a pertinent basic state with uoo 0.2 are shown in Fig. 1. The maximum nondimensional velocity is 1.05. The model Pacific jet has a maximum speed of 63m s and the model Atlantic jet has a maximum speed of 37m s. The two localized jets are made up of a...

References

P., 1988 Introduction to Micrometeorology. Academic, New York, 307 pp. Black, R. X., and R. Dole, 2000 Storm tracks and barotropic deformation in climate models. J. Climate, 13, 2712-2728. Chang, E. K. M., S. Lee, and K. Swanson, 2002 Storm track dynamics. J. Climate, 15, 21632183. Deng, Y., and M. Mak, 2005 An idealized model study relevant to the dynamics of the midwinter minimum of the Pacific storm track. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 1209-1225. Lee, S., 2000 Barotropic effects on...

Cyclall

Moreover, the temporal distribution of the soundings data is not homogeneous. It varies from zero at 0600 UTC 13 September to 13 soundings at 1600 UTC 13 September. A total of seven experiments are conducted (see Table 1). The schematic diagram of all dataassimilation experiments is shown in Fig. 3, and the experimental domain is shown in Fig. 2(a) with the size of 222 x 128 in a 45 km grid distance. There are a total of 45 full vertical model levels with the n values of 1.0, 0.995,...

An Overview of Satellite Measured Cloud Layer Structure and Cloud Optical and Microphysical Properties

Fu-Lung Chang Langley Research Center, NASA, Hampton, Virginia, USA Fu-Lung.Chang-1 nasa.gov Satellite observations are the only means of obtaining a continuous survey of cloud properties on global scales. Many climate and weather forecasting models have been evaluated using satellite-derived products. For clouds, the evaluation has been limited mainly to cloud amount, in part because conventional satellite remote sensing techniques cannot provide detailed information on cloud vertical...

Polar ice cap instability in energybalance climate models

This best-known example of a catastrophe in climatology is found in energy-balance climate models. Budydo (1969) and Sellers (1969) demonstrated, in a one-dimensional model, a catastrophic transition from a globe that has ice in the polar regions only to an ice-covered globe by lowering the solar constant by a few percent. A description of this catastrophe can be found in textbooks on climatology, such as Hartmann (1994). Ocean-atmosphere interaction gives rise to additional catastrophes. The...

E No qventilation

July precipitation for experiments over the Asian region (a) control run, (b) saturated soil moisture, (c) no ventilation, (d) no T ventilation, (e) no q ventilation, (f) no 3, (g) no ventilation and no 3, and (h) no ventilation and partial 3 (from CN03). Figure 6. July precipitation for experiments over the Asian region (a) control run, (b) saturated soil moisture, (c) no ventilation, (d) no T ventilation, (e) no q ventilation, (f) no 3, (g) no ventilation and no 3, and (h) no...