Minerals

The honour of being the first to suggest possible economic mineral deposits in Antarctica goes to Borchgrevink who found quartz reefs near Duke of York Island justifying the belief that in time to come exploration will receive much support from commerce (Borchgrevink, 1900). Shackleton attempted to finance his expedition in part by floating mining shares. In 1908 at the top of the Beardmore Glacier on their march south, Wild discovered seams of coal between 4 ins and 7-8 ft thick (Shackleton,...

Krill Stocks

Many computations have been made of production and standing stock of krill, and most estimates of annual harvestable yield range from 100 to 150 million tonnes. These figures have been derived using a variety of approaches including the consumption of past and present stocks of whales (based on their length of residence in Antarctic waters, volume of stomach contents, and energy requirements) the consumption by other vertebrate predators the catch rates of krill in plankton nets and the...

Basins Of The Campbell Plateau

Campbell Plateau

The Campbell Plateau is a large submerged block of continental crust lying to the east and southeast of the South Island of New Zealand. This block was originally part of Gondwanaland and several tensional basins formed within it during its separation from Antarctica (Davey, this volume). Four of these basins have commercial potential for hydrocarbons. They are the Canterbury, Great South, Pukaki and Campbell Basins (Fig. 6.5) The Canterbury Basin lies to the east of the alpine area of the...

Info

Wrecked by ice off the South Orkneys, 24 Feb. 1928. Crushed and sunk between pack and fast ice in Yule Bay, Oates Coast, 17 Dec. 1981. Caught and sunk by pack ice near Beaufort Island, south-west Ross Sea, 11 Jan. 1986. Ran aground and sank off Anvers Island, off Antarctic Peninsula, 31 Jan. 1989 Fig. 4.5. Distribution and mean concentration of icebergs in the Pacific Sector (after Romanov, 1984). Various zones delineate areas where a given number of icebergs per 1,000 km2 of ocean can be...

History Of Exploitation

Sealers from Britain and America were first on the scene, being attracted to the islands of the Scotia Sea, South Georgia and South Shetlands in particular. The elephant seal and Antarctic fur seal were the prime targets from about 1778 onwards, because of their valuable oil and fur respectively. Fig. 9.2. Relative abundance of krill and plankton (A), and relative feeding activity of the main Antarctic consumers (B), on a seasonal basis (after Laws, 1977). Fig. 9.2. Relative abundance of krill...

Ice Shelves And Other Marine Glaciers

Glaciers in contact with the sea can be given a general name of marine glaciers. Such glaciers are significant because their ice discharge is sufficient to bring them into contact with the sea and its powerful eroding forces. Most Antarctic glaciers reach the sea and some extend many hundreds of kilometres offshore. The Pacific Sector of the Antarctic contains a representative selection of different types of marine glaciers, from ice shelves to fjord glaciers to those that terminate on beaches...

Introduction

Seafloor Spreading Diagram

The southern Pacific Ocean is bounded by South America, West Antarctica and Australia (Fig. 5.1). The morphology of the deep ocean floor, which lies at depths of about 5,000 m, shows three main basins separated in the east by a major submarine ridge (the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge which continues into the East Pacific Rise) and in the west by the New Zealand continental block. These basins are, from west to east, the Tasman Basin, the Southwestern Pacific Basin and Southeastern Pacific Basin....

Bellingshausen Sea To Ross

Antarctica showing the extent of glacial ice in West and East Antarctica and ice shelves (shaded). The inset is a cross-section through the West Antarctic Ice Sheet which is grounded well below sea level in most places. Fig. 4.1. Antarctica showing the extent of glacial ice in West and East Antarctica and ice shelves (shaded). The inset is a cross-section through the West Antarctic Ice Sheet which is grounded well below sea level in most places. metres above sea level near the centre...

Effect Of The Antarctic Continent On Atmospheric Circulation In The Southern Ocean

The term katabatic (after Greek for go down) refers to a wind caused by the local descent of cold air down a slope. In the Antarctic, katabatic winds are a large-scale phenomenon, similar to trade winds in the magnitude of energy transfer (Weller, 1982). A high ice plateau, coupled with low cloud cover, permits intense radiational cooling near the ground, and this sets up strong surface inversions (i.e., air temperatures increase with height, which is the reverse of the normal situation in the...

Ross Ice Shelf

The Ross Ice Shelf is the largest ice shelf on earth having an area of 536,000 km2 (twice the area of New Zealand) and a volume of 23,000 km3 (Stuiver et al., 1981 Drewry, 1983). The ice shelf drains 2.86 million km2 (including the ice shelf itself) or 21 of Antarctica (Giovinetto and Bentley, 1985). Extensive field work in the 1970s, mainly under the Ross Ice Shelf Project (Thomas, 1979b), has made this the best known ice shelf. The thickness of Ross Ice Shelf is anything but regular (Bentley...

Tectonic History Of The Margins Of The Southern Pacific Ocean

The Pacific Ocean margin of Gondwana (South America, Antarctica and Australasia), as noted earlier, had been an active orogenic zone from the Precambrian to the Late Cretaceous (Scotese, 1987). It formed the boundary zone between the Pacific Ocean and the stable shield area comprising the Precambrian meta-morphic rocks which occur in Brazil, Uruguay, northeastern Argentina, Falkland Islands, Falkland Plateau, East Antarctica and Australia. Knowledge of the area is highly variable reflecting the...

Mean Current Structure And Interaction With Bottom Topography

While the large-scale features of the mean surface circulation generally conform to the pattern imparted by wind forcing, this basic pattern is modified or perturbed by interaction of the flow with bottom topography. Sverdrup et al. (1942) pointed out that the configuration of the ACC is strongly influenced by major bathym trie features. With the exception of the large array of drifting buoys deployed during FGGE (Garrett, 1980), direct current observations in the Pacific Sector of the Southern...

Petroleum Products

It has been variously estimated that > 106 tonnes of petroleum hydrocarbons are yearly released into the marine milieu (NAS, 1975). Public sensitivity to the visual effects of oil slicks and tar balls (Butler, 1975a) ensures that this pollution problem attracts wide attention. The global distribution of pelagic oil and tar balls closely follows established tanker shipping routes (Levy et al., 1981). Anecdotal evidence, and what few data there are (e.g., Benzhitsky and Polikarpov, 1977...

Phytoplankton

The numerous phytoplankton investigations carried out in Antarctic waters during the past few decades have dealt primarily with the taxonomy and distribution of the organisms. The publications of Kozlova (1964) and Hasle (1969) dealing with the systematic composition and distribution of the phytoplankton (diatoms in particular) in the Pacific Sector of the Southern Ocean are of special interest. Very little attention has been given to the study of the life history, physiology, metabolism, and...

Physical And Chemical Characteristics

The discussion of plankton in this chapter will be prefaced by a brief examination of the unique physical and chemical characteristics of the Antarctic seas, since these have a strong bearing on the biology, distribution, and abundance of the planktonic organisms. A more detailed account of the hydrology of the Pacific Sector of the Southern Ocean is given by Whitworth and Patterson (this volume). Unique features of the waters surrounding Antarctica include (a) the presence of pack-ice around...

Introduction Gp Glasby

For the English schoolboy brought up in the 1950s, Antarctica was synonymous with Scott's last expedition and Sir Clements Markham's (President of the Royal Geographical Society 1893-1905) romanticized version of the British bluejacket manhauling his sledge to the Pole. Yet the paradox of this view is readily apparent on re-reading the accounts of this expedition and observing that Scott's ship, Terra Nova, almost capsized in 1910 in a storm two days out from Port Chalmers, New Zealand. The sea...

Acknowled Gements

As editor, I would like to express my sincere thanks to all the contributors to this book for their tremendous effort in producing manuscripts, to Drs P.J. Barrett and T. Hatherton who kindly reviewed the entire book and D.G. Ainley, W.F. Budd, M.W. Cawthorn, A.E. Gilmour, C.H. Hay, J.R. Keys, K.B. Lewis, R.C. Murdoch, A.D. Pritchard, M.R. Sinclair and B.R. Stanton who reviewed individual chapters, to B. Grant for permission to reproduce the frontispiece, to Ms J.A. McDonald and Mr C.T. Pham...

Occurrence And Status Of Marine Mammals Whales

The Southern Hemisphere fossil record shows that whales have inhabited the region for over 40 million years from the Late Eocene to the present (Fordyce, 1985). The earliest cetaceans (archeocetes) were toothed whales, but opinions differ as to whether they gave rise to the modern toothed whales (odontocetes) and baleen whales (mysticetes) which appeared in the Oligocene (Barnes, 1984). Baleen whales are those that feed by straining krill or small fishes from the sea water through a filtering...

Seals

Fourteen species of seals are found in or adjacent to the Antarctic Sector of the Pacific. Breeding colonies occur on the coasts of southern New Zealand, southern Chile, the Subantartic islands, and on the ice itself. It was the Subantarctic and temperate seal colonies that attracted the 18th century sealers, and so started the massive depletion of marine mammal stocks in the Southern Ocean. Many Subantarctic islands were discovered by sealing expeditions. Between the late 1700s and 1830, many...

History Of Exploration

For any understanding of this region of the Southern Ocean, some historical perspective is necessary. Perhaps the most comprehensive summary of Antarctic exploration prior to the Heroic Age is that of Mill (1905). Other works consulted include Murray (1886,1894), Greely (1929), Fleming (1952), Priestley (1956), Kir-wan (1959), Brodie (1965), Quartermain (1967), M. Deacon (1971), G.E.R. Deacon (1975a, 1977a, 1984), Lovering and Prescott (1979), Shapley (1985), Walton and Bonner (1985), Hatherton...